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Why isn't the ovum reabsorbed into the body (like sperms) if it is not fertilised?

Why isn't the ovum reabsorbed into the body (like sperms) if it is not fertilised?


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I have read that when sperms are not ejaculated out of the body, they are broken down and reabsorbed. Why can't the ovum be reabsorbed into the body instead of shedding it out during menstruation.


Apparently they are

Technically speaking, the ovum is not shed because it does not exist unless and until fertilization occurs. Development leading up to the ovum otherwise stops before the final division of meiosis.

Now, you can ask why the body doesn't reabsorb oocytes, but then the answer is that it does, in a process called follicular atresia, with one or a few exceptions per month.

Now what about that secondary oocyte that isn't fertilized? Well, it's time to pull out a lovely article from 1917 (Harry Carleton). Why are we so unable to match such prose today? The paper describes a mouse study, giving quite recognizable descriptions of membrane blebbing and nuclear fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis in a decade during which it is usually said to have been forgotten. (A 2005 work reports this for unfertilized human oocytes) Carleton likens the apoptotic changes he observed to atresia in the ovary, and says that the oocytes are reabsorbed by phagocytic cells.


Menstruation is not the shedding of the ovum, it's the shedding of the uterine lining, which prepares for fertilization even if fertilization does not occur. If there is no implantation of a fertilized ovum, the prepared lining is shed. That an ovum might be included in this shedding event is completely inconsequential (a human ovum is about 0.1 mm in diameter).

In most species, the lining (endometrium) is absorbed. The evolutionary reasons why some animals do not absorb the lining are unclear. Some speculation in the Wikipedia article includes that building a thicker lining ahead of possible fertilization is the actual beneficial trait being selected, and that the inability to reabsorb the endometrium is merely a consequence of not being able to reabsorb the thicker lining quickly. Evolution isn't perfect, and just because something could happen differently doesn't mean it will, especially if there isn't strong selective pressure for or against it. There is also previous Q&A on this site about the evolution of menstruation.


Ovulation Cycles and Why They Can Be Confusing

Learn how to calculate ovulation based on the length of your menstrual cycle.

If you’re trying for a baby, you’ve probably learned two important facts about conception: 1) a woman is most likely to conceive around ovulation and 2) pinpointing the date of ovulation isn’t easy. That’s because ovulation doesn’t always happen like clockwork, especially if you don’t have a standard 28-day menstrual cycle. Here’s everything you need to know about ovulation cycles, with tips on figuring out your moments of peak fertility.


Dog semen, human egg fertilization?

There are claims that dog semen can bypass a woman's egg barriers and actually fertilize the egg. From what I've read, the fertilized egg doesn't produce anything viable because of chromosomal mismatch. The thing is I've also heard that the dog's semen does not penetrate the barriers, but I have no idea which one is the case. I tell us though, if a woman's egg can get fertilized by dog semen, that's just f**king hot! Would anyone with any scientific knowledge know which one is the case? (Scientific sources are more than welcome as long as they aren't too science-y so the average person, like myself, can understand.)

Here's the claim for egg fertilization:

Biology and Genetics - ArtOfZoo Animal Sex Bestiality and Zoophilia

Also there are posts on Quora stating that the dog's semen won't get past the egg barrier.


I know these are not accurate or scientific sources which is why I am asking if someone truly knows what happens during this process. Simply put, does the egg become fertilized or does the dog's semen not penetrate?

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The tip of a sperm cell contains proteins which - much like a virus does it - must match the proteins of the egg's cellwall. Otherwise the sperm will not be able to 'open' the cellwall to release its content inside. This is actually 'opening' it, almost exactly like a key/lock system. Except your door dissolves for you, if the key matches.

Much like with security locks on doors, even a slightly different key blade contour cannot open a lock it's not for. You can jam and wiggle as you want.

Dog sperm cells will not have the matching key, so it doesn't work.

And before you think but there could be universal keys or so. is dog sperm mutagenic on human skin? Teratogen? No? Well that's because if someone is being spermed all over by a dog, then the sperm cell enzymes cannot unlock the skin cell cellwalls.

And one day i will write a bot for this, this is like the third time.

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The tip of a sperm cell contains proteins which - much like a virus does it - must match the proteins of the egg's cellwall. Otherwise the sperm will not be able to 'open' the cellwall to release its content inside. This is actually 'opening' it, almost exactly like a key/lock system. Except your door dissolves for you, if the key matches.

Much like with security locks on doors, even a slightly different key blade contour cannot open a lock it's not for. You can jam and wiggle as you want.

Dog sperm cells will not have the matching key, so it doesn't work.

And before you think but there could be universal keys or so. is dog sperm mutagenic on human skin? Teratogen? No? Well that's because if someone is being spermed all over by a dog, then the sperm cell enzymes cannot unlock the skin cell cellwalls.

And one day i will write a bot for this, this is like the third time.

And no scientific sources listed? I'd go with the first answer but I'm not sure how scientifically accurate that website is.


Pathway from testes to urethra

It takes about 90 days for sperm to develop and reach the adequate maturity as to be ejected in the form of ejaculate. Spermatozoa are born in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, and then travel to the epididymis.

The seminiferous tubules can be found within the testicles and are responsible for sperm production. The epididymis is a long tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens.

During intercourse, a large amount of sperm (250 million approximately) leave the epididymis to go through the vasa deferentia and the urethra. Throughout this path, the sperm are covered with fluids released from the seminal vesicles and the prostate, thereby giving raise to what we know as semen, also referred to as ejaculate.

The main function of these fluids is to ease the entrance of the sperm into the vagina. Through the urethra, sperm are shot out via the penis, thereby entering the female reproductive tract, in particular, the vagina.

During the journey from the testes up until they come out, sperm acquire the proper form to reach and fertilize the egg. In short, the following are the changes that take place throughout the final stage of the sperm maturation process:

  • Each sperm cell packages its DNA to allow for the head (which contains the DNA) to be as small as possible, which makes it easier for it to swim more adequately and go through the zona pellucida (i.e. egg coat).
  • The tail develops the ideal structure to allow for the sperm to become stronger and move forward more quickly.
  • The mid piece is full of mitochondria to have plenty of energy. Mitochondria allow the sperm to be more energy-efficient.

How Does a Man Feel After Releasing Sperm?

When a man releases sperm, it is emotionally satisfying because arousal releases happy hormones like oxytocin and dopamine.

    has anti-stress properties, reduces blood pressure, and promotes growth. It also enhances the healing prospects. is a pleasure hormone and helps achieve satisfaction.

In some cases, this can also be related to nightfall or nocturnal emissions in men. This is because unused sperm cells could get released through nightfall if not reabsorbed by your body. However, here is how to stop nightfall. Also, know more about what is nightfall to understand more about this otherwise shushed topic.

In a nutshell, nothing happens if a man releases sperm daily, so you shouldn't dread it. Moreover, ejaculating has zero impact on your fertility or overall sex drive. On, the contrary it's emotionally gratifying because arousal releases dopamine and oxytocin.


Menstrual Cycle v Egg Donation Treatment Cycle

Menstrual Cycle

Every month, a healthy, fertile female will usually release (ovulate) just one egg. How does this happen and what’s the difference between this and an egg donation treatment cycle?

In a natural menstrual cycle, the female body produces a hormone called Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Follicle Stimulating Hormone is responsible for encouraging an elite team of about 10 to 12 eggs to grow (if we delve even deeper behind the scenes, several hundred eggs were involved in getting these 10 to 12 top player eggs to where they are!).

As with any team, one of the elite eggs is normally slightly ahead of the rest that’s the egg that goes on to become the natural leader it matures and is then released (ovulated). Perhaps it will meet some healthy sperm along the way and be fertilised. Perhaps it won’t. If it does fertilise and the embryo implants the female become pregnant. If it’s not fertilised or if it is fertilised and the embryo doesn’t implant then the female goes on to have a period.

Wondering what happens to the rest of the egg team? Those eggs just shrink and are reabsorbed by the body. Isn’t biology brilliant…

In an egg donation cycle, the aim is to supercharge the entire elite egg team with an extra helping of FSH so they can all be released. Clever, eh?!


Pregnancy and Conception

Most of the time, you won't know the exact day you got pregnant. Your doctor will count the start of your pregnancy from the first day of your last menstrual period. That's about 2 weeks ahead of when conception happens.

Here's a primer on conception:

Each month inside your ovaries, a group of eggs starts to grow in small, fluid-filled sacs called follicles. Eventually, one of the eggs erupts from the follicle (ovulation). It usually happens about 2 weeks before your next period..

After the egg leaves the follicle, the follicle develops into something called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum releases a hormone that helps thicken the lining of your uterus, getting it ready for the egg.

The Egg Travels to the Fallopian Tube

After the egg is released, it moves into the fallopian tube. It stays there for about 24 hours, waiting for a single sperm to fertilize it. All this happens, on average, about 2 weeks before your next period.

If the Egg Isn't Fertilized

If no sperm is around to fertilize the egg, it moves through to the uterus and disintegrates. Your hormone levels go back to normal. Your body sheds the thick lining of the uterus, and your period starts.

If one sperm does make its way into the fallopian tube and burrows into the egg, it fertilizes the egg. The egg changes so that no other sperm can get in.

At the instant of fertilization, your baby's genes and sex are set. If the sperm has a Y chromosome, your baby will be a boy. If it has an X chromosome, the baby will be a girl.

Implantation: Moving to the Uterus

The fertilized egg stays in the fallopian tube for about 3 to 4 days. But within 24 hours of being fertilized, it starts dividing fast into many cells. It keeps dividing as it moves slowly through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Its next job is to attach to the lining of uterus. This is called implantation.

Some women notice spotting (or slight bleeding) for 1 or 2 days around the time of implantation. The lining of the uterus gets thicker and the cervix is sealed by a plug of mucus. It will stay in place until the baby is ready to be born.

Within 3 weeks, the cells begin to grow as clumps, and the baby's first nerve cells have already formed.

A pregnancy hormone known as hCG is in your blood from the time of implantation. This is the hormone detected in a pregnancy test. Some home pregnancy tests can detect hCG as soon as 7 days after ovulation.


ELI5: Would I still exist if another sperm cell fertilized the egg cell?

If another sperm cell fertilized the egg cell, my DNA would be different. But does this mean that I wouldn't be here at all? Or would my DNA being different just change the way I would look and Iɽ still exist today as a different person? Or does it matter and would I not exist at all and another person would be here instead?

Essential, no. But this depends on a lot of things. Since your asking in terms of biology, you wouldn't be because your DNA is unique and defining, and thus anything with differences is not you. I know it seems awfully semantic.

However if you want to ague the concept of identity or self, we have a lot less biology and more philosophy to look at, but that's not really answerable in any exact way. But since I argue that most of personality is upbringing, you would more or less become the same person that you are as long as that doesn't change.

In short, as long as you live the same life, you would probably end up the same, only changing depending on how different the genetics are you or you have.

But since I argue that most of personality is upbringing

Actually, the research that has been done on this subject doesn't really support this: It finds genetics is highly important, and parenting is not very important. See here for example: http://www.nature.com/tp/journal/v5/n7/full/tp201596a.html

But it isn't just one paper, this has been the general conclusion from studies of diverse methodologies (Identical vs. fraternal twins raised together, Twins raised apart, adoption studies) by many researchers over decades, and it isn't controversial anymore.

There are caveats, of course. The heritability compares the variation in outcome due to variation in genes with the variation in outcome due to variation in environment. If you restrict the range of the environment, as these studies do by looking at first world countries, often in families approved to adopt a child, you are getting a higher heritability than you would if there were not these restrictions.

No, you wouldn't exist as there is no soul that inhabits the body. Your consciousness is not encapsulated in an egg or a sperm, or even an embryo, but rather it is brought out over the course of time as the brain develops into maturity. It is a clear no in your example if your DNA was different.

To make this even more interesting as well as confusing, imagine that you take the egg that you came from and the sperm that you came from, and instead of combining those two instances, you instead clone the egg and combine the cloned egg with the uncloned sperm. Would that produce your own individual consciousness?

If you say yes, then what if you were to take the uncloned egg and then combine it with the cloned sperm. Remember that this is the same genetic material. Would that produce your own individual consciousness?

Certainly both of these offspring would be the same as you genetically, and if we imagine that they were brought up in the same exact environment, they would act and behave identically. The important part here is that they would not have the same consciousness.

To get at this point a little more, if you were to right at this very moment clone your current self molecule for molecule, your clone would behave and be just like you, people would act as though it was you, but your consciousness would not overlap. You would not have control of your clone. Rather your consciousness would be separate and distinct, despite containing the [just about all] the same contents. Your clone would be an instance of yourself, and since your are identical to your clone, you are also an instance of yourself.

To continue on, if we cloned the egg and the sperm that made you and destroyed the originals, would that make you? We've already established that otherwise, this cloned copy would make something that was an instance of you but not an instance of your particular consciousness, so would destroying the originals really matter? But then again, why wouldn't it make you when there is nothing special to this the matter that makes the clone, it is the exact same thing, so why wouldn't it?

As you can see, this gets pretty confusing, and much of the confusion comes from analyzing consciousness where it does not exist. Certainly that egg and sperm ultimately created your consciousness, but your consciousness did not arrive until much later in the process.

I can imagine that this answer isn't very satisfying. From a scientific point, what we can say is that an human egg and sperm can combine to form an instance of consciousness at some point. We can also say that if we were to make thousands and thousands of clones, that they would form identical instances of consciousness. Which particular instance is formed doesn't really make sense as a question.

To illustrate this, imagine we take some bricks and make a building. We then take some identical bricks and make another building. If we ask what would happen if the building would have the same particular "buildingness" of building one if we had used other identical bricks, someone would probably respond that "bricks only come into buildingness when the building is made". I feel I can make this metaphor better, but it will suffice for now.

I realize that I'm not quite answering your question, and it is in a sense because it cannot be answered, but it is also because it doesn't make a whole lot of sense in general. An egg and sperm combined, it developed into a baby which gradually gained a consciousness, and that consciousness happened to be you. There is no "you" floating out there waiting for the chance to inhabit matter, rather when matter forms into particular configurations, a consciousness is born. Which consciousness? A new one that had never existed previously.

I certainly feel the pull of the question "but what circumstances would create my individual consciousness", and the only answer you can give is an account of what happened. There is nothing special about your own individual consciousness, rather some consciousness was going to be created, and it happened to be yours.

Lastly, I believe time is a very important factor to consciousness, as it is formed over time. It is easy to imagine consciousness being formed in an instant, but is developed over a great deal of time. You can certainly say that infancy to adulthood contains many advances in consciousness, and these advances take time.


Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system provides several functions. The ovaries produce the egg cells, called the ova or oocytes. The oocytes are then transported to the fallopian tube where fertilization by a sperm may occur. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where the uterine lining has thickened in response to the normal hormones of the reproductive cycle. Once in the uterus, the fertilized egg can implant into thickened uterine lining and continue to develop. If implantation does not take place, the uterine lining is shed as menstrual flow. In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.

During menopause, the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. At this point, menstrual cycles can become irregular and eventually stop. One year after menstrual cycles stop, the woman is considered to be menopausal.

What parts make-up the female anatomy?

The female reproductive anatomy includes both external and internal structures.

The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genital) is twofold: To enable sperm to enter the body and to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.

The main external structures of the female reproductive system include:

  • Labia majora: The labia majora (“large lips”) enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. During puberty, hair growth occurs on the skin of the labia majora, which also contain sweat and oil-secreting glands.
  • Labia minora: The labia minora (“small lips”) can have a variety of sizes and shapes. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). This skin is very delicate and can become easily irritated and swollen.
  • Bartholin’s glands: These glands are located next to the vaginal opening on each side and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.
  • Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.

The internal reproductive organs include:

  • Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
  • Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A canal through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.
  • Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
  • Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as pathways for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization of an egg by a sperm normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine lining.

What happens during the menstrual cycle?

Females of reproductive age (beginning anywhere from 11 to 16 years of age) experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. Menstru means "monthly” – leading to the term menstrual cycle. With every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the woman’s intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining. Many women call the days that they notice vaginal bleeding their “period,” “menstrual” or cycle.

The average menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases. These phases include:

  • The follicular phase (development of the egg)
  • The ovulatory phase (release of the egg)
  • The luteal phase (hormone levels decrease if the egg does not implant)

There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in the menstrual cycle. These hormones include:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone

Follicular phase

This phase starts on the first day of your period. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the following events occur:

  • Two hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are released from the brain and travel in the blood to the ovaries.
  • The hormones stimulate the growth of about 15 to 20 eggs in the ovaries, each in its own "shell," called a follicle.
  • These hormones (FSH and LH) also trigger an increase in the production of the female hormone estrogen.
  • As estrogen levels rise, like a switch, it turns off the production of follicle-stimulating hormone. This careful balance of hormones allows the body to limit the number of follicles that will prepare eggs to be released.
  • As the follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and continues to mature. This dominant follicle suppresses all of the other follicles in the group. As a result, they stop growing and die. The dominant follicle continues to produce estrogen.

Ovulatory phase

The ovulatory phase (ovulation) usually starts about 14 days after the follicular phase started, but this can vary. The ovulatory phase falls between the follicular phase and luteal phase. Most women will have a menstrual period 10 to 16 days after ovulation. During this phase, the following events occur:

  • The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced by the brain.
  • This causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary.
  • As the egg is released (a process called ovulation) it is captured by finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes (fimbriae). The fimbriae sweep the egg into the tube.
  • For one to five days prior to ovulation, many women will notice an increase in egg white cervical mucus. This mucus is the vaginal discharge that helps to capture and nourish sperm on its way to meet the egg for fertilization.

Luteal phase

The luteal phase begins right after ovulation and involves the following processes:

  • Once it releases its egg, the empty ovarian follicle develops into a new structure called the corpus luteum.
  • The corpus luteum secretes the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg to implant.
  • If intercourse has taken place and a man's sperm has fertilized the egg (a process called conception), the fertilized egg (embryo) will travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus. The woman is now considered pregnant.
  • If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus. Not needed to support a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins.

How many eggs does a woman have?

During fetal life, there are about 6 million to 7 million eggs. From this time, no new eggs are produced. At birth, there are approximately 1 million eggs and by the time of puberty, only about 300,000 remain. Of these, only 300 to 400 will be ovulated during a woman's reproductive lifetime. Fertility can drop as a woman ages due to decreasing number and quality of the remaining eggs.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/19/2019.

References

  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Your Changing Body: Puberty in Girls (Especially for Teens). Accessed 2/5/2019.
  • healthdirect. Female reproductive system. Accessed 2/5/2019.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health. Menopause. Accessed 2/5/2019.
  • Planned Parenthood. Reproductive and Sexual Anatomy. Accessed 2/5/2019.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Women's Reproductive Health. Accessed 2/5/2019.
  • Merck Manual. Menstrual Cycle. Accessed 2/5/2019.

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Dead Sperm Can Make Live Babies

istockphoto To fertilize an egg the old-fashioned way, sperm need to be able to swim. Not so with in-vitro (test tube) fertilization. In fact, when IVF technicians use tiny, robotically controlled glass straws to insert a single sperm inside an egg, they sometimes beat the sperm with the glass until it stops moving. The only thing that matters is the DNA inside the sperm.

Micronutrients & Sperm Production

There are a number of key nutrients that are important for proper DNA replication and sperm cell development. Here are some of the top nutrients that support proper sperm development

Coenzyme Q10: Converts food into an energy source for cells & serves as an antioxidant
Folic Acid: Provides critical molecules needed for DNA replication
Selenium: Helps to regulate hormones, serves as an antioxidant & supports the structural integrity of the sperm neck-piece that connects the head to the tail.
Vitamin E: Fat soluble antioxidant
Vitamin C: Supports the development of key amino acids necessary for cell division & serves as a powerful antioxidant.
Zinc: A building block for testosterone, semen, sperm and the prostate. Perhaps the manliest nutrient on earth



Comments:

  1. Akinonos

    wonderfully, very valuable message

  2. Yerucham

    Really and as I have not thought about it earlier

  3. Xavian

    It is surprising! Amazing!

  4. Jager

    Yeah right.



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