Genes: microscope image
What is - definition
Simply put, we can say that genome is the genetic code of the human being, that is, the set of human genes. In genetic material we can obtain all information for the development and functioning of the organism of the human being. This genetic code is present in each of the human cells.
Chromosomes and DNA
The human genome comes in 23 pairs of chromosomes that contain the genes within. All information is encoded by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The DNA, which has a double helix shape, is made up of four bases that join in pairs: adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanima.
Genome Project Summary and Benefits
The factor that has aroused the most interest is that through the genetic mapping of the human genome it will be possible, very soon, to find the causes of many diseases. Many medicines and vaccines can be elaborated from the information obtained by these researches. By discovering the cause of various diseases, humans can adopt preventive measures and behaviors. For example, a person may know that they are genetically predisposed to developing lung cancer. Given this information, you may stop smoking and take measures to prevent this disease.
Using genetic research and specialized examinations, it is already possible to detect if an embryo has inherited serious diseases, enabling proper treatment from the earliest days of life. This procedure reduces the impact of the disease on the body as well as its sequelae. In the future, when the functions of all human genes are discovered, many other benefits will come.
One of today's leading scientists, geneticist Craig Venture, owner of the genetic research firm Ventura, completed in 2000 the genetic sequencing of all human genes. All bases (chemical molecules that make up DNA) have been identified.
At the same time, the Genome Project, which was attended by several universities and research institutions around the world (including USP - University of São Paulo), also completed this genetic mapping.