Pituitary: secretion of various hormones
Pituitary hormones are those synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland (endocrine gland located at the base of the brain), which is also known as the pituitary gland.
Adenohypophysis hormones and their main functions:
- Human Growth Hormone (hGH): Its main function is to stimulate muscles, liver, cartilage and other tissues in the human body to synthesize and secrete IGFs (growth factors). It also acts on the development of body cells and protein synthesis.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): Causes estrogen secretion in women and development of oocytes. In men, this hormone acts by stimulating the testicles in the production of sperm.
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): acts to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones.
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH): acts in women on progesterone and estrogen secretion, besides acting on the corpus luteum formation and ovulation process. In men, this hormone has the important function of stimulating the testicles in the production of testosterone.
- Prolactin (PRL): has the function, in women, of stimulating the mammary glands in the production of breast milk.
- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone: acts mainly on brain activities (brainstem, cerebellum and brain).
- Corticotropin (ACTH): Its main function is the stimulation of the cortex of the adrenal gland in the production of cortisol.
Neurohypophysis hormones and their main functions:
- Oxytocin: It is a very important hormone for women. It acts in the output of milk through the mammary glands, and is important in the contraction of uterine cells during the process of delivery.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): It is also known as vasopressin. It acts in maintaining body hydration by reducing the production of urine. It also acts in the sweating process to reduce water loss in certain situations of need for water control.