Biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem

Ecosystem: existence of biotic and abiotic components


Ecosystems are characterized by the existence of several related factors. These factors or components are divided into biotic and abiotic.

Biotic Components

These are all living things that act in a particular ecosystem, such as animals and plants.

These components can be divided into two groups:

- Autotrophic beings: also known as producer organisms, are those that have the ability to produce their own food. This process occurs through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

Examples: Angiosperm plants and photosynthetic aquatic algae.

- Heterotrophic beings: they are the consuming and decomposing organisms of an ecosystem. As they do not have the ability to produce their own food, they feed on other beings (animals and vegetables).

Consumers can be classified into: primary (feed on producers. Example: herbivores); secondary (feed on herbivores. Example: snake); tertiary (feed on the secondary. Example: eagle).

Decomposing beings are those that feed on dead organisms. Examples: bacteria and fungi.

Abiotic Components

They are the physical and chemical factors of an ecosystem. These factors interact with each other and with biotic factors, ensuring the perfect functioning of ecosystems on our planet.

Examples of abiotic components:

- Sunlight (physical factor)

- Solar radiation (physical factor)

- Heat (physical factor)

- Air humidity (physical factor)

- Rainfall (physical factor)

- Nutrients in water and soil (chemical factor)