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Sea Sponges: Poriferous Example
Introduction - what they are
Poriferous is a phylum (phyla are the highest groupings in each of the kingdoms into which living beings have been divided) from the kingdom Animália (also called the Animal Kingdom or Metazoa, is composed of multicellular living beings whose cells form biological tissues, capable of respond to their surroundings), the Parazoa sub-kingdom, where animals known as sponges fall.
Main characteristics of porifers
Filo's name comes from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to charge". These organisms are primitive and sessile (they do not voluntarily move from their place of attachment). Most of them are marine, these beings feed by filtration, pumping water through the walls of the body and trapping food particles in their cells.
Sponges are among the simplest animals, with partially differentiated tissues (parazoas), but no muscles, nervous system, or internal organs.
They are very close to a choanoflagellate cell colony (which shows the likely evolutionary leap from unicellular to multicellular) as each cell feeds on its own.
There are over 15,000 modern species of known sponges that can be found from the water's surface to over 8,000 meters deep, and many more are discovered every day.
Pieces of sponges can regenerate into a new sponge. This process is known as asexual reproduction, which can occur through budding or twinning (reproduction process in which the formation of buds or buds occurs in the parent, which after separating from it, develop into new individuals), and also, by fragmentation (process in which the parent's body is broken into several pieces, where each of these parts is able to regenerate individually until it takes on a similar form as its parent).
Examples of porifers (main species):
- Sea Sponges
- Limestone sponges
- Glass Sponges
The fossil record dates to sponges since the Precambrian (or Precambric or Neoproterozoic) era.
Glass Sponge (Euplectella aspergillum): life in deep ocean regions.