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Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?


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I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named like that, if not?


Receptors

Any drug or compound with specific effects has a receptor. You can read about this general concept in Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Chapter 1 introduces the concept, chapters 3 and 5 expand further. As far as the history of this concept is concerned, receptors mediating the specificity of action was first clearly articulated by Paul Ehrlich (in the context of dyes and toxins), and further developed by John Langley (and Ehrlich again in response). Cannabis and cannabinoids are not unique in this regard. Illicit and therapeutic drugs of all kinds have a target binding sites (receptors). In almost all cases, these receptors are bound by endogenous compounds as well.

Does having a receptor mean we should consume something?

There was a case to be made that having a great number of receptors that bind psychoactive compounds in cannabis means there is a physiologic role for some cannabinoid (especially given the pattern of expression) and suggested the existence of an endogenous cannabinoid before it was discovered. This was discussed in the nature paper that first identified the receptor and its functional expression and in the science paper that reported the discovery of endocannabinoids. Generally, it doesn't suggest that we are "meant to consume cannabis". Toxins and poisons also have receptors, and we certainly don't want to consume those.

As far as the name is concerned, the comment by @user137 is correct. Receptors are sometimes named by exogenous drugs that activate them, in particular when these compounds are discovered and studied before an endogenous ligand is found. Opioid receptors are another example.


In addition to De Novo's excellent answer, I would like to add that sometimes, the fact that we have receptors for something is precisely a sign that we should not consume that thing.

When it comes to taste and smell in particular, many receptors are evolutionarily conserved precisely because their physiological role is to warn us of a danger. For example, diamines such as putrescine and cadaverine smell well, terrible, as their names suggest. And we are very good at detecting these smells, because these molecules are produced during organic matter putrefaction; in other words, we have receptors (recently identified) designed specifically to tell us that certain foods are not suitable for consumption.

The same principle applies to olfactory receptors for volatile molecules harboring sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, that often smell like rotten eggs or feces - for the same reason. Mercaptan is even used to give natural gas its distinctive smell (it's initially odorless), making sure that we can detect any gas leak that could cause an accident - because we have really good receptors for it.


Cannabinoid receptors are a part of the endocannabinoid system, which encompasses native to our body ligands such as Anandamide, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, Palmitoylethanolamide, and a few others.

The reason they are named after the cannabis plant is because of the role cannabinoids played in identifying and characterizing those receptors, a pattern that you'll see in biochemistry a lot, e.g. AMPAr and NMDAr receptors named because AMPA/NMDA are their selective ligands, even though both are glutamatergic receptors, nicotinic/muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or CART(Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) named for the fact that cocaine and amphetamine regulate its transcription levels.

For what it's worth, not all cannabinoid system proteins are named after cannabis, such as the more recently characterized NAGly, GPR55, and GPR119 receptors.


Cannabis is having a moment (not that it’s all that new). And as scientific and medical research around the plant has continued to expand, the ways in which it can be purchased and consumed have broadened significantly.

Nowadays, you can walk into practically any pharmacy or grocery store and find CBD lotions and balms in the sports medicine aisle. There are CBD teas, gummies, vapes, bath bombs, tinctures, and even capsules widely available – and if you’re in a state where marijuana is legal for recreational use, you can find the same items with THC, the cannabis plant’s better-known compound with psychoactive properties.

While conclusive evidence surrounding CBD and THC’s pain-relieving properties is still somewhat lacking, the anecdotal support for it is enormous. Both compounds have been touted as a “miracle cure” by many individuals suffering from chronic pain, including those with endometriosis, PCOS, and other period-related conditions – and there’s also (some) evidence that it can help with insomnia, anxiety, and inflammation.

One thing we know for sure, though, is that how you consume cannabis has a very real impact on how it affects the body. And now, there’s a new way to get your daily dose: By inserting a CBD or THC suppository into your vagina.

Confused? Intrigued? We’ve got the lowdown on THC and CBD suppositories. Read on to learn more.

What is CBD? And how is it different from THC?

CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol THC is the abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabinol – specifically, “THC” is usually used to refer to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but there are other variations of the molecule (you may have seen or heard of delta-8 THC, for instance).

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)

Both CBD and THC are natural compounds derived from the very same plant, cannabis sativa. And both are able to work their magic by communicating with your body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a role in regulating processes including sleep, mood, appetite, memory, reproduction, and fertility. 1

While research is still uncovering more about the ECS day by day, we do know that it’s pretty dang important: We actually rely on it for survival. Without launching into too much scientific detail, it basically helps us maintain homeostasis, which means it keeps our “operating systems” working as they should.

Walk outside on a blazing hot summer day? You can thank your ECS for signaling your body to produce sweat and cool you down. Get caught up in work and forget to eat lunch? Your ECS is responsible for triggering that growling stomach, reminding you to eat a sandwich – and keeping you from passing out.

The ECS can be broken down into three key components:

  1. Endocannabinoids, a type of retrograde neurotransmitter produced by your own body – and their cousin, exogenous cannabinoids, which come from an external source (i.e. the cannabis plant)
  2. Cannabinoid receptors located both within the nervous system and around the body (these are what endocannabinoids and cannabinoids bond to)
  3. Enzymes that help break down the endocannabinoids and cannabinoids

Humans aren’t the only beings with an ECS system: All vertebrates – including cats, dogs, fish, birds, cows – produce their own endocannabinoids. THC and CBD, on the other hand, are exogenous cannabinoids (meaning they originate outside of the body).

The two confirmed cannabinoid receptors in humans that have been researched the most to date are CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are most prominent in the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and spinal cord) while CB2 receptors are more concentrated within the peripheral nervous system (i.e. your limbs, hands, feet, etc.)

CB1 and CB2 work a bit differently when they encounter THC versus CBD, but the details are kind of complicated so we’ve done the homework to give you a quick rundown of what we’ve learned: Basically, THC tends to influence the parts of your body that make you feel “high,” whereas CBD influences the parts that reduce inflammation. 2

In other words, you can take a high dose of CBD in the morning before going to work or to class, and still function just the same as always. You may, however, notice that you feel a bit more relaxed, or that your headache has diminished a bit. Many individuals who can’t tolerate THC or don’t enjoy its intoxicating effects turn to CBD instead, especially when it comes to managing pain.

Legality of THC and CBD

It’s important to note that, while THC is starting to become more widely legalized across the United States, it’s not legal everywhere – and there are varying rules and regulations around both CBD and THC in every state.

As of December 2018, “industrial hemp” became a legal agricultural commodity in all 50 states. However, the DEA still considers both CBD and THC (the hemp plant’s compounds) to be Schedule I controlled substances. For reference, heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and peyote are also classified as Schedule I controlled substances.

Hemp and cannabis and marijuana are all the same species of plant, BTW. Different strains of the plant have different levels of CBD and THC (some have a nice balance of both, some are mostly THC, and some are mostly CBD). While science doesn’t differentiate “hemp” from “cannabis,” the law uses the term “hemp” to refer to cannabis that contains 0.3% or less THC content by dry weight.

Translation? Different states have different laws around the legality of THC, but CBD is now legal across all states in the US. Check out this map to learn more about THC legality in your state.

Okay… so, what’s a suppository? And how does it work?

A suppository is a small, cone-shaped or bullet-shaped preparation of a substance (usually medication) that’s meant to be inserted into either the vagina or the rectum.

Suppositories are usually only designed to work in ONE of those two places – we definitely don’t recommend putting a rectal suppository in your vagina, or vice versa. However, some CBD and THC suppositories are fine to use in either place (just make sure to read the instructions before using a new product).

If you’ve ever treated a yeast infection with over-the-counter antifungal medication, like Monistat, you’ve probably come across suppositories before. Most vaginal suppositories come with an applicator that makes placement a little easier: you want to get the suppository all the way up the vaginal canal, just below the cervix, to minimize leakage.

Once a suppository is inside, it melts or dissolves and releases its medication, most of which is absorbed directly into your bloodstream through your vagina’s vascular walls. Medication delivered through a suppository tends to work more quickly than oral medication, which has to pass through your digestive system before entering your bloodstream.

The research: Evidence for and against weed suppositories

Time for the questions you’ve probably been waiting for: Do CBD (or THC) suppositories really work? Is there a real benefit to consuming CBD or THC through your rectum or vagina?

There’s loads of anecdotal evidence that says yes to both of the above. It dates all the way back to 1889, when Dr. J.W. Farlow described the use of marijuana suppositories as having “few equals in its power over nervous headaches.” 3 In this case, he’s referring to rectal suppositories.

Let’s take a closer look at the clinical research (which is still pretty minimal).

Rectal cannabis suppositories

First, it’s important to note that we know more about administering cannabis suppositories rectally than vaginally, and we can’t assume that rectal use compares to vaginal use. We do know, however, that both the pelvic region and colon contain cannabinoid receptors, including CB1 and CB2. 4 These receptors have a lot to do with how THC impacts the body.

According to a 2013 Canadian report, using rectal suppositories to administer cannabis has a pretty interesting impact on the absorption of THC into the body:

“50% of THC is usually transformed into its more psychoactive form, 11-Hydroxy-delta-9-THC, when taken orally. Rectal administration avoids these effects, whilst allowing a higher proportion of THC to reach the bloodstream […] This results in a higher bioavailability of Δ9-THC by the rectal route (52-61%) than by the oral route.” 5

In plain English: THC consumed through the bum doesn’t cause the same psychoactive effects that are experienced when taken orally, i.e. in a weed brownie. This is because a good amount of the THC you consume needs to transform into 11-hydroxy-Δ9-THC in order to experience a “high.”

Rectally-consumed cannabis, is, however, 52 to 61% more bioavailable than orally consumed cannabis – so it still has a legitimate effect on your body. This effect may be limited to the immediate area, though.

Many suppository users report that rectally-consumed cannabis tends to produce more of a “body high,” sometimes described as a general sense of relaxation and relief without the intoxication. Rectal suppositories have also shown promise when it comes to treating local inflammation and conditions like hemorrhoids. 6

Vaginal cannabis suppositories

What about vaginal cannabis suppositories? Unfortunately, there’s even less research about CBD or THC bioavailability within the vagina. Most companies currently offering vaginal suppositories liken its effects to a topical cannabis product (like a balm or cream designed to be applied to the skin).

As reported by Project CBD, “The absence of a ‘head high’ would seem to indicate that a suppository does not distribute a systemic dose of cannabis […] This suggests that a suppository acts more like a topical with a local effect, rather than a transdermal patch which disseminates medicine systemically through the bloodstream.” 6

According to Foria Wellness, a US-based company that makes and sells cannabis suppositories, the vagina does contain cannabinoid receptors: “Within the female reproductive tract, endocannabinoid receptors are widespread. They are most dense in the uterus, but are also found in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina and vulva.” 7

So, it’s possible that those receptors could allow THC to make its way into the bloodstream – but do they get you high? Probably not. But, again, that doesn’t mean the vaginally-applied cannabinoids don’t have a valuable effect on your body.

Potential benefits of cannabis vaginal suppositories include pain management, the reduction of inflammation, and localized muscle relaxation. More studies are still needed to explore these possible effects, but there’s plenty of anecdotal evidence in favor – especially from people who experience pain during sex (dyspareunia) or generalized pelvic pain.

What can CBD and THC suppositories help with?

Vaginal and rectal cannabis suppositories have been around for centuries, with the first reported vaginal suppositories dating back to the 19th century, when they were prescribed to treat gynecological disorders and migraines. 8 More recently, they’ve been used to help with the following symptoms and conditions: 6

  • Menstrual cramps and dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea is the technical term for painful periods. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to severe pain caused by uterine cramps, whereas secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by a disorder in the reproductive system. (painful periods)
  • Abdominal pain
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic discomfort
  • Post-coital pain or inflammation
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Pain with intercourse
  • Pelvic floor muscle relaxation

In addition, some users have found that THC or CBD suppositories – as well as topical preparations, like oils applied directly to the vulva – can help with sexual arousal.

According to Foria Wellness, “Normally, when you experience sexual arousal, blood rushes to your clitoris and vagina, creating opening, elongating and lubrication. Similarly, when you apply phytocannabinoids to your vulva, they also increase blood flow there. This effect — vasodilation — is the reason people’s eyes can redden when they get high.” 9

Keep in mind that much of the information we’ve covered above applies to THC suppositories. CBD has less of an affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors than THC (though it prefers CB2 receptors).

However, CBD does play a role in modulating several non-cannabinoid receptors and ion channels. It also acts independently of the ECS by delaying the “reuptake” of endogenous neurotransmitters (such as anandamide and adenosine), which impact functions like sleep and stress. 9

We do have some scientific evidence in support of CBD as a treatment for period cramps. Turns out, the compound actually works similarly to NSAIDs (like Advil), inhibiting the enzyme responsible for producing prostaglandins: COX-2. 10 FYI, prostaglandins are those pesky compounds your body produces that are responsible for the inflammation, uterine contractions, and pain you experience before and during your period.

Scientists recently discovered that that CBD also inhibits COX-2, but it doesn’t have the same annoying gastrointestinal effects that some people experience when using NSAIDs. So, whether you dose your CBD in a vaginal suppository, ingest it orally, or apply it topically to your lower abdomen, there’s a chance it could be your new premenstrual BFF.

I have a client that we’ve decided to test vaginal suppository for severe Endometriosis.

Remarkable & a godsend. This poor woman gets wrecked by the pain.

How to use CBD or THC suppositories

Getting your dose of THC or CBD via rectal or vaginal suppository is not as easy as taking a puff from a joint or swallowing an edible thanks to, well, gravity.

Always follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the product you’ve purchased – and be aware that many brands do not include an applicator, meaning you might need to get a little familiar with your vagina and/or rectum to insert the suppository manually.

In general, it’s a good idea to insert a suppository (either vaginal or rectal) before bed, when you’re going to be laying down for a while. Otherwise, use a pad or pantyliner to protect your underwear from any potential drippage.

Cannabis suppositories: To buy or not to buy?

Whether or not cannabis suppositories could be a good fit for you as an individual has to do with a few different factors. First, ask yourself if you’re comfortable trying a product that has not yet been extensively studied. While very few adverse effects have been reported with CBD and THC suppositories, there isn’t a whole lot of cold, hard, scientific proof that they work (and they can get pretty expensive).

However: If the anecdotal support is enough to convince you to break out your wallet, we’re totally in favor of you doing what is right for you. Just be sure to do your research and look for brands that offer a Certificate of Analysis (COA) report that outlines the potency, exact ingredients, and possible contaminants in every batch of suppositories they produce.

As always when trying a new product, double-check the ingredients to make sure there isn’t anything in there that you’re allergic to, especially since it will potentially be going into a very sensitive area.

Second, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor if you’re considering using CBD or THC suppositories to cope with a diagnosed condition like endometriosis, especially if you’re also taking prescription medication.

Your provider will be able to explain potential risks, side effects, or interactions that you might need to be aware of, and they can help place these suppositories in the context of your overall health and care.

Third, remember that accessing THC may not be possible in your state if recreational use has not yet been legalized. Even then, there are varying restrictions around what can be sold in a dispensary from state to state and not all dispensaries stock THC suppositories. CBD, however, is legal in all 50 states and can easily be ordered online.

Here are a few brands to try:

CBD or THC suppositories could be worth a shot, especially for those who have struggled with the side effects of traditional therapies like hormonal intervention or pharmaceuticals.

As more cannabis- and vagina-related research is published, we’ll be sure to keep you updated with the facts. Check back here or send us a message at [email protected] with your experience or questions!

This article is informational only and is not offered as medical advice, nor does it substitute for a consultation with your physician. If you have any gynecological/medical concerns or conditions, please consult your physician.


This Is Your "Little Brain" on Cannabis

Increasingly, our “little brain” is being recognized as playing a bigger role than previously thought in cognition, learning, emotions, and addiction. Because human cerebellum has a high density of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, there is speculation that cannabis use most likely affects both cerebellar function and structure. In recent months, two different systematic reviews have done deep and detailed dives into how cannabis affects the cerebellum.

The first review, from January 2019, “The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies,” was published in The Cerebellum journal. This review (Moreno-Rius, 2019) analyzed previous studies on human subjects and animal models that had identified various ways that cannabis affects the cerebellum. The author of this review also looked at how cannabis-related changes to the cerebellar structure and functional connectivity might influence addictive behaviors.

Josep Moreno-Rius summed up his findings in the paper’s abstract:

"[The cerebellum] seems to be involved in the effects of addictive drugs and addiction-related processes and also presents a high density of cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical research on the involvement of the cerebellum in cannabis’ effects has focused on the drug’s motor incoordinating actions, potentially underestimating its participation in addiction. This fact motivates a deep study and comprehension of the neural basis of addiction-relevant cannabinoid effects.”

A few years ago, I reported on research (Miquel et al., 2015) which identified 'seven arguments for considering' that the cerebellum may be a key player in drug-addiction related brain circuitry. (see "The Cerebellum May Play Unforeseen Role in Driving Addiction")

The second recent paper that deconstructs how cannabis influences cerebellum is titled, “Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review,” and was published February 27 in Addiction Biology. This analysis was conducted by a team of neuroscientists and addiction specialists from the Netherlands and Spain.

After screening a pool of 348 unique papers that addressed the cerebellum-cannabis connection, the reviewers honed in on how cannabis affects the cerebellum and cerebellum-related behavior based on a quantitative analysis of 40 peer-reviewed articles published prior to March 2018. As the authors explain, “We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar‐dependent behavioral tasks.”

The three most consistent findings of this review (Blithikioti et al., 2019) include:

  1. Increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use
  2. Alteration of cerebellar resting state activity after acute or chronic cannabis use
  3. Deficits in memory, decision making, and associative learning related to cannabis use

As would be expected, the systematic review showed that higher lifelong exposure to cannabis and the younger someone was when he or she started smoking weed—or ingesting marijuana via edibles—was frequently associated with cannabis-induced alterations to cerebellum structure and function.

“Chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in cerebellar structure and function, as well as with deficits in behavioral paradigms that involve the cerebellum (e.g., eyeblink conditioning, memory, and decision making)," Blithikioti and co-authors stated. “Future studies should consider tobacco as confounding factor and use standardized methods for assessing cannabis use. Paradigms exploring the functional activity of the cerebellum may prove useful as monitoring tools of cannabis‐induced impairment."

Although both of these reviews (Moreno-Rius, 2019 & Blithikioti et al., 2019) identify a correlation between cannabis use, notable changes to structure/function of the human cerebellum, and addiction—much more research is needed before identifying or assuming causality.

Josep Moreno-Rius. "The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies." The Cerebellum (First published online: January 4, 2019) DOI: 10.1007/s12311-018-0993-7

Chrysanthi Blithikioti, Laia Miquel, Albert Batalla, Belen Rubio, Giovanni Maffei, Ivan Herreros, Antoni Gual, Paul Verschure, Mercedes Balcells‐Oliveró. "Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review." Addiction Biology (First published online: February 27, 2019) DOI: 10.1111/adb.12714


Drugs containing cannabinoids may be helpful in treating certain rare forms of epilepsy, nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, and loss of appetite and weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. In addition, some evidence suggests modest benefits of cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic pain and multiple sclerosis symptoms. Cannabis isn’t helpful for glaucoma. Research on cannabis or cannabinoids for other conditions is in its early stages.

The following sections summarize the research on cannabis or cannabinoids for specific health conditions.

  • Research has been done on the effects of cannabis or cannabinoids on chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain (pain associated with nerve injury or damage).
  • A 2018 review looked at 47 studies (4,743 participants) of cannabis or cannabinoids for various types of chronic pain other than cancer pain and found evidence of a small benefit. Twenty-nine percent of people taking cannabis/cannabinoids had a 30 percent reduction in their pain whereas 26 percent of those taking a placebo (an inactive substance) did. The difference may be too small to be meaningful to patients. Adverse events (side effects) were more common among people taking cannabis/cannabinoids than those taking placebos.
  • A 2018 review of 16 studies of cannabis-based medicines for neuropathic pain, most of which tested a cannabinoid preparation called nabiximols (brand name Sativex a mouth spray containing both THC and CBD that is approved in some countries but not in the United States), found low- to moderate-quality evidence that these medicines produced better pain relief than placebos did. However, the data could not be considered reliable because the studies included small numbers of people and may have been biased. People taking cannabis-based medicines were more likely than those taking placebos to drop out of studies because of side effects.
  • A 2015 review of 28 studies (2,454 participants) of cannabinoids in which chronic pain was assessed found the studies generally showed improvements in pain measures in people taking cannabinoids, but these did not reach statistical significance in most of the studies. However, the average number of patients who reported at least a 30 percent reduction in pain was greater with cannabinoids than with placebo.

Helping To Decrease Opioid Use

  • There’s evidence from studies in animals that administering THC along with opioids may make it possible to control pain with a smaller dose of opioids.
  • A 2017 review looked at studies in people in which cannabinoids were administered along with opioids to treat pain. These studies were designed to determine whether cannabinoids could make it possible to control pain with smaller amounts of opioids. There were 9 studies (750 total participants), of which 3 (642 participants) used a high-quality study design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive cannabinoids or a placebo. The results were inconsistent, and none of the high-quality studies indicated that cannabinoids could lead to decreased opioid use.
  • Researchers have looked at statistical data on groups of people to see whether access to cannabis (for example, through “medical marijuana laws”—state laws that allow patients with certain medical conditions to get access to cannabis)—is linked with changes in opioid use or with changes in harm associated with opioids. The findings have been inconsistent.
    • States with medical marijuana laws were found to have lower prescription rates both for opioids and for all drugs that cannabis could substitute for among people on Medicare. However, data from a national survey (not limited to people on Medicare) showed that users of medical marijuana were more likely than nonusers to report taking prescription drugs.
    • An analysis of data from 1999 to 2010 indicated that states with medical marijuana laws had lower death rates from overdoses of opioid pain medicines, but when a similar analysis was extended through 2017, it showed higher death rates from this kind of overdose.
    • An analysis of survey data from 2004 to 2014 found that passing of medical marijuana laws was not associated with less nonmedical prescription opioid use. Thus, people with access to medical marijuana did not appear to be substituting it for prescription opioids.

    Anxiety

    • A small amount of evidence from studies in people suggests that cannabis or cannabinoids might help to reduce anxiety. One study of 24 people with social anxiety disorder found that they had less anxiety in a simulated public speaking test after taking CBD than after taking a placebo. Four studies have suggested that cannabinoids may be helpful for anxiety in people with chronic pain the study participants did not necessarily have anxiety disorders.

    Epilepsy

    • Cannabinoids, primarily CBD, have been studied for the treatment of seizures associated with forms of epilepsy that are difficult to control with other medicines. Epidiolex (oral CBD) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of seizures associated with two epileptic encephalopathies: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. (Epileptic encephalopathies are a group of seizure disorders that start in childhood and involve frequent seizures along with severe impairments in cognitive development.) Not enough research has been done on cannabinoids for other, more common forms of epilepsy to allow conclusions to be reached about whether they’re helpful for these conditions.

    Glaucoma

    • Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve, leading to vision loss and blindness. Early treatment can often prevent severe loss of vision. Lowering pressure in the eye can slow progression of the disease.
    • Studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s showed that cannabis or substances derived from it could lower pressure in the eye, but not as effectively as treatments already in use. One limitation of cannabis-based products is that they only affect pressure in the eye for a short period of time.
    • A recent animal study showed that CBD, applied directly to the eye, may cause an undesirable increase in pressure in the eye.

    HIV/AIDS Symptoms

    • Unintentional weight loss can be a problem for people with HIV/AIDS. In 1992, the FDA approved the cannabinoid dronabinol for the treatment of loss of appetite associated with weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS. This approval was based primarily on a study of 139 people that assessed effects of dronabinol on appetite and weight changes.
    • There have been a few other studies of cannabis or cannabinoids for appetite and weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS, but they were short and only included small numbers of people, and their results may have been biased. Overall, the evidence that cannabis/cannabinoids are beneficial in people with HIV/AIDS is limited.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    • Inflammatory bowel disease is the name for a group of conditions in which the digestive tract becomes inflamed. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the most common types. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fever. The symptoms can range from mild to severe, and they can come and go, sometimes disappearing for months or years and then returning.
    • A 2018 review looked at 3 studies (93 total participants) that compared smoked cannabis or cannabis oil with placebos in people with active Crohn’s disease. There was no difference between the cannabis/cannabis oil and placebo groups in clinical remission of the disease. Some people using cannabis or cannabis oil had improvements in symptoms, but some had undesirable side effects. It was uncertain whether the potential benefits of cannabis or cannabis oil were greater than the potential harms.
    • A 2018 review examined 2 studies (92 participants) that compared smoked cannabis or CBD capsules with placebos in people with active ulcerative colitis. In the CBD study, there was no difference between the two groups in clinical remission, but the people taking CBD had more side effects. In the smoked cannabis study, a measure of disease activity was lower after 8 weeks in the cannabis group no information on side effects was reported.

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined as repeated abdominal pain with changes in bowel movements (diarrhea, constipation, or both). It’s one of a group of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that relate to how the brain and gut work together.
    • Although there’s interest in using cannabis/cannabinoids for symptoms of IBS, there’s been little research on their use for this condition in people. Therefore, it’s unknown whether cannabis or cannabinoids can be helpful.

    Movement Disorders Due to Tourette Syndrome

    • A 2015 review of 2 small placebo-controlled studies with 36 participants suggested that synthetic THC capsules may be associated with a significant improvement in tic severity in patients with Tourette syndrome.

    Multiple Sclerosis

    • Several cannabis/cannabinoid preparations have been studied for multiple sclerosis symptoms, including dronabinol, nabilone, cannabis extract, nabiximols (brand name Sativex a mouth spray containing THC and CBD that is approved in more than 25 countries outside the United States), and smoked cannabis.
      • A review of 17 studies of a variety of cannabinoid preparations with 3,161 total participants indicated that cannabinoids caused a small improvement in spasticity (as assessed by the patient), pain, and bladder problems in people with multiple sclerosis, but cannabinoids didn’t significantly improve spasticity when measured by objective tests.
      • A review of 6 placebo-controlled clinical trials with 1,134 total participants concluded that cannabinoids (nabiximols, dronabinol, and THC/CBD) were associated with a greater average improvement on the Ashworth scale for spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients compared with placebo, although this did not reach statistical significance.
      • Evidence-based guidelines issued in 2014 by the American Academy of Neurology concluded that nabiximols is probably effective for improving subjective spasticity symptoms, probably ineffective for reducing objective spasticity measures or bladder incontinence, and possibly ineffective for reducing multiple sclerosis–related tremor. Based on two small studies, the guidelines concluded that the data are inadequate to evaluate the effects of smoked cannabis in people with multiple sclerosis.
      • A 2010 analysis of 3 studies (666 participants) of nabiximols in people with multiple sclerosis and spasticity found that nabiximols reduced subjective spasticity, usually within 3 weeks, and that about one-third of people given nabiximols as an addition to other treatment would have at least a 30 percent improvement in spasticity. Nabiximols appeared to be reasonably safe.

      Nausea and Vomiting Related to Cancer Chemotherapy

      • A 2015 review of 23 studies (1,326 participants) on the cannabinoids dronabinol or nabilone for treating nausea and vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy found that they were more helpful than a placebo and similar in effectiveness to other medicines used for this purpose. More people had side effects such as dizziness or sleepiness, though, when taking the cannabinoid medicines.
      • The research on dronabinol and nabilone for treating nausea and vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy was done primarily in the 1980s and 1990s and reflects the types of chemotherapy treatments and choices of antinausea medicines available at that time rather than current ones.

      Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

      • Some people with PTSD have used cannabis or products made from it to try to relieve their symptoms and believe that it can help, but there’s been little research on whether it’s actually useful.
        • In one very small study (10 people), the cannabinoid nabilone was more effective than a placebo at relieving PTSD-related nightmares.
        • Observational studies (studies that collected data on people with PTSD who made their own choices about whether to use cannabis) haven’t provided clear evidence on whether cannabis is helpful or harmful for PTSD symptoms.

        Sleep Problems

        • Many studies of cannabis or cannabinoids in people with health problems (such as multiple sclerosis, PTSD, or chronic pain) have looked at effects on sleep. Often, there’s been evidence of better sleep quality, fewer sleep disturbances, or decreased time to fall asleep in people taking cannabis/cannabinoids. However, it’s uncertain whether the cannabis products affected sleep directly or whether people slept better because the symptoms of their illnesses had improved. The effects of cannabis/cannabinoids on sleep problems in people who don’t have other illnesses are uncertain.

        Key pieces of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)

        Because of its crucial role in homeostasis, the ECS is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Its key pieces evolved a long time ago, and the ECS can be found in all vertebrate species.

        The three key components of the human endocannabinoid system are:

        • Cannabinoid receptors found on the surface of cells , small molecules that activate cannabinoid receptors
        • Metabolic enzymes that break down endocannabinoids after they are used

        Why do we have cannabinoid receptors and what are they?

        Cannabinoid receptors sit on the surface of cells and &ldquolisten&rdquo to conditions outside the cell. They transmit information about changing conditions to the inside of the cell, kick-starting the appropriate cellular response.

        There are two major cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. These aren&rsquot the only cannabinoid receptors, but they were the first ones discovered and remain the best-studied.

        CB1 receptors are one of the most abundant receptor types in the brain. These are the receptors that interact with THC to get people high.

        CB2 receptors are more abundant outside of the nervous system, in places like the immune system. However, both receptors can be found throughout the body (Figure 1).

        Figure 1: Where are CB1 and CB2 receptors located in the body?
        CB1 and CB2 receptors are key players in the endocannabinoid system (ECS). They are located on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. Both receptors are found throughout the body, but CB1 receptors are more abundant in the central nervous system, including on neurons in the brain. In contrast, CB2 receptors are more abundant outside of the nervous system, including cells of the immune system.

        What are endocannabinoids?

        Endocannabinoids are molecules that, like the plant cannabinoid THC, bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors. However, unlike THC, endocannabinoids are produced naturally by cells in the human body (&ldquoendo&rdquo means &ldquowithin,&rdquo as in within the body).

        There are two major endocannabinoids: anandamide and 2-AG (Figure 2). These endocannabinoids are made from fat-like molecules within cell membranes, and are synthesized on-demand. This means that they get made and used exactly when they&rsquore needed, rather than packaged and stored for later use like many other biological molecules.

        Anandamide. Derived from the Sanskrit word &ldquoananda,&rdquo which translates to &ldquojoy,&rdquo &ldquobliss,&rdquo or &ldquodelight,&rdquo anandamide is sometimes called &ldquothe bliss molecule.&rdquo More scientifically known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), this fatty acid neurotransmitter is the subject of several scientific studies that try to determine its effects on humans. First identified and named in 1992 by Raphael Mechoulam, anandamide is believed to have an impact on working memory and early stage embryo development.

        2-AG. 2-ArachidonoylGlycerol (2-AG) was first described in 1994-1995 by Raphael Mechoulam and his student Shimon Ben-Shabat. While it was previously a known chemical compound, this is when scientists first became aware of its affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Present at high levels in the central nervous system, 2-ArachidonoylGlycerol (2-AG) has been identified in maternal bovine as well as human milk.

        Figure 2: Anandamide and 2-AG are the two major endocannabinoids.
        Cannabinoids are a class of molecules characterized by their ability to activate cannabinoid receptors like CB1 and CB2. Anandamide and 2-AG are the two major endocannabinoids produced naturally in the body. THC is the psychoactive plant cannabinoid produced by cannabis. All three of these cannabinoids can activate CB1 and CB2 receptors, although each one has a different potency at each receptor.

        Metabolic enzymes

        The third piece of the endocannabinoid triad includes the metabolic enzymes that quickly destroy endocannabinoids within the ECS once they are used. The two big enzymes are FAAH, which breaks down anandamide, and MAGL, which breaks down 2-AG (Figure 3).

        These enzymes ensure that endocannabinoids get used when they&rsquore needed, but not for longer than necessary. This process distinguishes endocannabinoids from many other molecular signals in the body, such as hormones or classical neurotransmitters, which can persist for many seconds or minutes, or get packaged and stored for later use.

        Figure 3: FAAH and MAGL are the key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system.
        Enzymes are molecules that accelerate chemical reactions in the body, often for breaking down molecules. FAAH and MAGL are key players in the ECS because they quickly break down endocannabinoids. FAAH breaks down anandamide, while MAGL breaks down 2-AG. These enzymes break down endocannabinoids very quickly, but are not effective at breaking down plant cannabinoids like THC.

        These three key components of the endocannabinoid system can be found within almost every major system of the body. When something brings a cell out of its Goldilocks zone, these three pillars of the ECS are often called upon to bring things back, thus maintaining homeostasis.

        Because of its role in helping bring things back to their physiological Goldilocks zone, the ECS is often engaged only when and where it&rsquos needed. Dr. Vincenzo Di Marzo, Research Director at the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry in Italy, put it to us this way:

        &ldquoWith the &lsquopro-homeostatic action of the ECS&rsquo we mean that this system of chemical signals gets temporarily activated following deviations from cellular homeostasis. When such deviations are non-physiological, the temporarily activated ECS attempts, in a space- and time-selective manner, to restore the previous physiological situation (homeostasis).&rdquo

        In other words, the endocannabinoid system helps bring things back to the biological Goldilocks zone.

        Below we will consider examples of how the ECS helps maintain homeostasis in two areas: the firing of brain cells in the nervous system and the inflammatory response of the immune system.


        This Is Your "Little Brain" on Cannabis

        Increasingly, our “little brain” is being recognized as playing a bigger role than previously thought in cognition, learning, emotions, and addiction. Because human cerebellum has a high density of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, there is speculation that cannabis use most likely affects both cerebellar function and structure. In recent months, two different systematic reviews have done deep and detailed dives into how cannabis affects the cerebellum.

        The first review, from January 2019, “The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies,” was published in The Cerebellum journal. This review (Moreno-Rius, 2019) analyzed previous studies on human subjects and animal models that had identified various ways that cannabis affects the cerebellum. The author of this review also looked at how cannabis-related changes to the cerebellar structure and functional connectivity might influence addictive behaviors.

        Josep Moreno-Rius summed up his findings in the paper’s abstract:

        "[The cerebellum] seems to be involved in the effects of addictive drugs and addiction-related processes and also presents a high density of cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical research on the involvement of the cerebellum in cannabis’ effects has focused on the drug’s motor incoordinating actions, potentially underestimating its participation in addiction. This fact motivates a deep study and comprehension of the neural basis of addiction-relevant cannabinoid effects.”

        A few years ago, I reported on research (Miquel et al., 2015) which identified 'seven arguments for considering' that the cerebellum may be a key player in drug-addiction related brain circuitry. (see "The Cerebellum May Play Unforeseen Role in Driving Addiction")

        The second recent paper that deconstructs how cannabis influences cerebellum is titled, “Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review,” and was published February 27 in Addiction Biology. This analysis was conducted by a team of neuroscientists and addiction specialists from the Netherlands and Spain.

        After screening a pool of 348 unique papers that addressed the cerebellum-cannabis connection, the reviewers honed in on how cannabis affects the cerebellum and cerebellum-related behavior based on a quantitative analysis of 40 peer-reviewed articles published prior to March 2018. As the authors explain, “We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar‐dependent behavioral tasks.”

        The three most consistent findings of this review (Blithikioti et al., 2019) include:

        1. Increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use
        2. Alteration of cerebellar resting state activity after acute or chronic cannabis use
        3. Deficits in memory, decision making, and associative learning related to cannabis use

        As would be expected, the systematic review showed that higher lifelong exposure to cannabis and the younger someone was when he or she started smoking weed—or ingesting marijuana via edibles—was frequently associated with cannabis-induced alterations to cerebellum structure and function.

        “Chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in cerebellar structure and function, as well as with deficits in behavioral paradigms that involve the cerebellum (e.g., eyeblink conditioning, memory, and decision making)," Blithikioti and co-authors stated. “Future studies should consider tobacco as confounding factor and use standardized methods for assessing cannabis use. Paradigms exploring the functional activity of the cerebellum may prove useful as monitoring tools of cannabis‐induced impairment."

        Although both of these reviews (Moreno-Rius, 2019 & Blithikioti et al., 2019) identify a correlation between cannabis use, notable changes to structure/function of the human cerebellum, and addiction—much more research is needed before identifying or assuming causality.

        Josep Moreno-Rius. "The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies." The Cerebellum (First published online: January 4, 2019) DOI: 10.1007/s12311-018-0993-7

        Chrysanthi Blithikioti, Laia Miquel, Albert Batalla, Belen Rubio, Giovanni Maffei, Ivan Herreros, Antoni Gual, Paul Verschure, Mercedes Balcells‐Oliveró. "Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review." Addiction Biology (First published online: February 27, 2019) DOI: 10.1111/adb.12714


        Chapter 5 - Medicinal Cannabis: an overview for health-care providers

        Cannabis has been used by humans as a medicine, intoxicant, food, and fiber for millennia. In fact, recent archeological evidence suggests that Cannabis was possibly the first species domesticated by humans. In modern times, medicinal Cannabis and isolated phytocannabinoids have shown efficacy in numerous therapeutic indications, including pain, nausea, wasting syndrome, and epilepsy. The past decade has seen a surge in patient access to medicinal Cannabis products in the United States (US) and elsewhere. The lack of federal regulations in the US has created a complex market that is distinctive in many ways from other contemporary medicinal product markets. This situation has pros and cons. For example, pros include patient empowerment, product diversity, and rapid product innovation, whereas cons include a lack of evidence-based practices and often variable product standards. The complexity of the situation can create confusion for health-care providers tasked with serving medicinal Cannabis users. To assist in navigating this evolving field, this chapter presents an overview of medicinal Cannabis topics for health-care providers and other interested stakeholders. Topics covered include history, nomenclature, common medicinal Cannabis formulations, product labeling issues, an overview of the chemical components of Cannabis, the endogenous endocannabinoid system, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of common phytocannabinoids such as (−)-trans-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol, an overview of existing FDA-approved cannabinoid products, and finally a discussion of common adverse effects associated with Cannabis.


        Terps 101 - What They Are, Where They Come From, and Why Plants Make Them

        What Are Terpenes?

        “Terpenes” is a blanket term used to categorize a wide variety of secondary chemical compounds produced by cannabis, and nearly all other plants on Earth! A “secondary” compound is one that a plant makes as a by-product to help support the production of its primary compounds - sometimes that’s fruit, sometimes it’s flowers, and in the case of cannabis, the primary compounds are the cannabinoids we enjoy consuming, like THC and CBD.

        The secondary cannabis compounds of terpenes function in several ways to support the plant’s healthy growth - terpenes have a ton of different effects on external and internal stimuli that impact the plant, including bacteria, fungus, insects, cellular growth irregularities, and other sources of stress. Terpenes are also responsible for the distinctive smell of different plants and have some impact on their flavor as well - if you think back to your high school Biology classes, you likely remember that pleasant smells and tastes help encourage animals to spread the seeds and pollen of plants, thereby promoting widespread growth and reproductive success of that plant species.

        So these terpenes not only act as repellants to animals that might harm the plant - they also act as lures to those animals that can have symbiotic relationships with the plant as well!

        Where - and Why - does Cannabis make Terpenes?

        Terpenes, like cannabinoids, are produced in the trichomes of cannabis - the sticky, pinhead-small ball-and-stalk protrusions covering cannabis leaves and buds, which wind up looking like coatings of frost on high-testing cannabis strains. Trichomes are able to release terpenes into the air thanks to the small and volatile nature of the molecules, giving cannabis strains their strong, distinctive smells - each terpene has a unique scent, and the combination of different types and amounts of terpenes in varied cannabis strains produces their signature scent profiles.

        In fact, with some dedicated training and time-tested experience, you can learn to pick out exact terpenes in your cannabis just from the complex smells given off by the flower. We’ll get into tips for identifying individual terpene scents in a later section, so that you can start to hone the basis of these skills right now!

        An important point of distinction is that terpenes are NOT the same as cannabinoids - they are different compounds with very different impacts on our bodies. Cannabinoids interact directly with the CB1 and CB2 receptors of our Endocannabinoid System to induce psychoactive effects and changes in our cognition, mood, and physical feelings. THC’s effects are intoxicating and euphoric, with many medicinal benefits accompanying the pleasant recreational effects that made cannabis so prominent.

        CBD is often incorrectly cited as being non-psychoactive because it does not produce the powerful intoxication of THC along with its many medicinal benefits - however, because it does interact with our nervous system cells to induce a change in our mood, physical state, and sometimes our cognition, it is by definition psychoactive even if it is indeed non-intoxicating and safer for use when THC would be inappropriate.

        What do Terpenes do For Humans Consuming Cannabis?

        Cannabinoids have very strong influences on our mental and physical states, while terpenes are different in that their effects -particularly their cognitive effects - are much more nuanced than those of cannabinoids. So while THC can make you feel very euphoric to the point of being silly or giggly, a terpene that typically produces mood elevation such as Limonene or Pinene is more likely to produce lighter effects, more similar to the uplifting boost of energy you get during cleaning the house or a light hike through the woods.

        Some people use the analogy of the mechanisms powering your car to help distinguish the effects of terpenes and cannabinoids - THC, CBD, and other minor cannabinoids are like the engine assembly that produces the power to get you going. They do most of the work, and the amount of them in your cannabis products typically correlates to the strength of experience you’ll get (we’ll get into more details on this momentarily). In this car analogy, terpenes are like the steering wheel and associated parts that control the motion and direction of the car - they mostly control whether the experience will be uplifting, relaxing, or any of the many other unique and distinct experiences that cannabis can provide us.

        For this reason, understanding how different terpenes affect you individually is key to getting the most predictable, repeatable, and desirable experiences from your cannabis products. While cannabinoids and terpenes are very different in the type of effects they produce and how exactly they interact with our bodies, they do work together naturally in some very interesting ways that cannabis scientists describe as The Entourage Effect.

        To summarize, the Entourage Effect describes the ways that terpenes and cannabinoids work together to interact with our nervous system’s cannabinoid receptors to induce effects that are very different, and usually much more powerful, than just the cannabinoids or the terpenes would on their own. Dr. Ethan Russo, one of the leading cannabis researchers of our day, describes the many ways individual terpenes interact with our physiology, as well as working together with cannabinoids, to produce unique effects on our mental and physical states in his renowned “Taming THC” paper. (Russo, 2011)

        Now that you understand what terpenes are, where and why plants produce them, and how they are different from cannabinoids, we’ll get into details on how you can use this knowledge to discover your own individual terpene preferences. We’ll also give you tips on finding these terpenes in your various cannabis products so that you can get the exact cannabis experience you’re looking for, almost every time.


        This Is Your "Little Brain" on Cannabis

        Increasingly, our “little brain” is being recognized as playing a bigger role than previously thought in cognition, learning, emotions, and addiction. Because human cerebellum has a high density of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, there is speculation that cannabis use most likely affects both cerebellar function and structure. In recent months, two different systematic reviews have done deep and detailed dives into how cannabis affects the cerebellum.

        The first review, from January 2019, “The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies,” was published in The Cerebellum journal. This review (Moreno-Rius, 2019) analyzed previous studies on human subjects and animal models that had identified various ways that cannabis affects the cerebellum. The author of this review also looked at how cannabis-related changes to the cerebellar structure and functional connectivity might influence addictive behaviors.

        Josep Moreno-Rius summed up his findings in the paper’s abstract:

        "[The cerebellum] seems to be involved in the effects of addictive drugs and addiction-related processes and also presents a high density of cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical research on the involvement of the cerebellum in cannabis’ effects has focused on the drug’s motor incoordinating actions, potentially underestimating its participation in addiction. This fact motivates a deep study and comprehension of the neural basis of addiction-relevant cannabinoid effects.”

        A few years ago, I reported on research (Miquel et al., 2015) which identified 'seven arguments for considering' that the cerebellum may be a key player in drug-addiction related brain circuitry. (see "The Cerebellum May Play Unforeseen Role in Driving Addiction")

        The second recent paper that deconstructs how cannabis influences cerebellum is titled, “Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review,” and was published February 27 in Addiction Biology. This analysis was conducted by a team of neuroscientists and addiction specialists from the Netherlands and Spain.

        After screening a pool of 348 unique papers that addressed the cerebellum-cannabis connection, the reviewers honed in on how cannabis affects the cerebellum and cerebellum-related behavior based on a quantitative analysis of 40 peer-reviewed articles published prior to March 2018. As the authors explain, “We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar‐dependent behavioral tasks.”

        The three most consistent findings of this review (Blithikioti et al., 2019) include:

        1. Increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use
        2. Alteration of cerebellar resting state activity after acute or chronic cannabis use
        3. Deficits in memory, decision making, and associative learning related to cannabis use

        As would be expected, the systematic review showed that higher lifelong exposure to cannabis and the younger someone was when he or she started smoking weed—or ingesting marijuana via edibles—was frequently associated with cannabis-induced alterations to cerebellum structure and function.

        “Chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in cerebellar structure and function, as well as with deficits in behavioral paradigms that involve the cerebellum (e.g., eyeblink conditioning, memory, and decision making)," Blithikioti and co-authors stated. “Future studies should consider tobacco as confounding factor and use standardized methods for assessing cannabis use. Paradigms exploring the functional activity of the cerebellum may prove useful as monitoring tools of cannabis‐induced impairment."

        Although both of these reviews (Moreno-Rius, 2019 & Blithikioti et al., 2019) identify a correlation between cannabis use, notable changes to structure/function of the human cerebellum, and addiction—much more research is needed before identifying or assuming causality.

        Josep Moreno-Rius. "The Cerebellum, THC, and Cannabis Addiction: Findings from Animal and Human Studies." The Cerebellum (First published online: January 4, 2019) DOI: 10.1007/s12311-018-0993-7

        Chrysanthi Blithikioti, Laia Miquel, Albert Batalla, Belen Rubio, Giovanni Maffei, Ivan Herreros, Antoni Gual, Paul Verschure, Mercedes Balcells‐Oliveró. "Cerebellar Alterations in Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review." Addiction Biology (First published online: February 27, 2019) DOI: 10.1111/adb.12714


        Conclusion

        CBD oil is an effective alternative treatment for many serious health conditions, as well as some more common health ailments like the common cold.

        One of the most beneficial facts about the utilization of this oil in the treatment of these medical conditions is the fact that it does not cause the same side-effects as pharmaceutical drugs, yet has been scientifically-proven to be effective and safe.

        Additionally, CBD oil can also often be utilized to reduce the side-effects of certain pharmaceutical treatments, such as nausea caused by a cancer treatment plan.

        Unfortunately, The New Rule published by the DEA has caused many people to become concerned about the future of CBD products and their legality.

        In this post, we aimed to provide an overview of what CBD oil is and why it is so popular, as well as looking at what the DEA’s new Final Rule has in store for those using these products.



Comments:

  1. Tygolabar

    You are not right. Let's discuss.

  2. Abhaya

    Sorry for interfering, I would like to suggest another solution



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