Are there any thermogenic plants which are suitable as houseplants?

Are there any thermogenic plants which are suitable as houseplants?

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I have been wanting to supplement my heating system with some plants that produce heat! I have become aware that there are around 14 species which generate significant amounts of heat for example the eastern skunk cabbage.

However I have also read that many species which are thermogenic release odours such as the smell of rotting flesh. I would rather avoid plants which will make my house smell like this!

Are there any plants which produce heat which would be suitable for storing in my house?

Philodendron bipinnatifidum is a thermogenic houseplant. It is somewhat toxic, so not pet- or small-child-friendly, but commonly grown as a houseplant. However, I do not know if the heat generated would be enough to significantly impact your house; my impression is that most thermogenic plants merely warm their immediate surroundings (so you may need a LOT of plants). As a side note, your scheme to use plant-based-heating would probably also have good effects on air quality :)

The heat the plant produces ultimately comes from the light it uses. Unless the plant produces heat just in the wanted time (winter?) from light absorbed another time; then you would be just as warm by letting the light directly warm your environment regardless of plants.

How to Grow Philodendrons

The Philodendron genus contains hundreds of species of beautiful foliage plants. And many are commonly grown as houseplants. In fact, they’re often touted for their air-cleaning abilities indoors.   Their leaves are typically large, green, and glossy, adding a touch of their native tropical jungles to your home.

There are two basic types of philodendrons: the vining plants and the non-climbing plants. The vining plants grow vines of several feet and need some sort of support structure to climb on, such as a trellis or around a basket. The non-climbing types have an upright growth habit and make for excellent foliage plants in containers. In general, philodendrons have a fast growth rate. They’re best planted in the spring, but houseplants typically can be started at any time of year with success.

Botanical Name Philodendron
Common Name Philodendron
Plant Type Perennial
Mature Size 1–20 ft. tall, 1–6 ft. wide (varies by species)
Sun Exposure Partial
Soil Type Loamy, well-drained
Soil pH Acidic
Bloom Time None
Flower Color None
Hardiness Zones 9–11 (USDA)
Native Area Central America, South America
Toxicity Toxic to pets and people

Watch Now: How to Grow and Care for a Philodendron Plant

Ammonia and Plants

Ammonia is present in soil, water and air, and it is an important source of nitrogen for plants. Nitrogen promotes plant growth and improves fruit and seed production, resulting in a greater yield. It's also essential for photosynthesis, which is the process in which plants convert light energy into chemical energy. The ammonia that's present in household cleansers is diluted in water, forming aqueous ammonia, and ammonium and hydroxide ions. Although ammonium ions are effective as fertilizer, the aqueous ammonia is toxic and can damage or kill seedlings.

Prayer Plant Varieties

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

The Maranta leuconeura is the most popular variety. A low-growing perennial, it has patterned green, two-toned leaves that grow to form a large clump from rhizomes, or creeping root stalks. The leaf blotching pattern becomes more vivid with maturity, and the leaves grow up and outwards, overlapping each other.

Leaves’ undersides are a reddish color, and at maturity the Maranta leuconeura will grow to around 12 inches tall. If you look carefully in summertime, you may see the small white flowers that emerge on slender stems. The Latin term “leuconeura” means white-veined: the leaves also show this subtle characteristic.

The “Herringbone Plant”, otherwise known as “M. leuconeura erythroneura”, is another popular variety of this slow-growing evergreen. In this species, leaves have strong red veining on dark green leaves, with a pale yellow-green midrib. The undersides of the leaves are a brighter, deeper red which contrasts perfectly when folded up at night.

This is a really stunning variety, particularly effective when used in hanging baskets or planted en masse.

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Another good variety is the Maranta “Rabbit’s Foot Plant”. This one is also known as “M. leuconeura kerchoveana”, which is bit of a mouthful. The mid-green leaves on this particular variety are marked with dark brown blotches spaced between deep green leaf veins. In summertime, intermittent white-mauve flowers appear on long slender stems.

There are numerous varieties of Maranta: I’ve only named the best few in this article. All of these varieties are distinguished by their leaf patterns and coloration, and each one has a distinct personality. If you’re aiming to add a few to your own space, it’s best to have a look for yourself and determine which are your favorites.

Best Houseplants for Low Light

Adding plants to the house is a favorite way to bring a little lift to any room. Having plants around makes everything feel lighter, brighter, and more alive. Houseplants add color and texture to a room, purify the air, and just look nice.

The Biology of Low Light Indoor Plants

A handful of tropical, broad-leaf plants are primed for low-light situations through basic biology: large leaves that soak up as much light as possible. Most of them evolved on the tropical forest floor shaded by the larger sun-loving trees all around them. Some also have a waxy outer layer that helps to retain moisture and makes them double-duty crowd-pleasers and low-maintenance indoor plants as well.

How to Care for Low Light Plants Indoors

It is generally true that low light plants don’t require much water, so caring for them can be as simple as planting them in well-drained soil and watering on a semi-regular basis.

Houseplants to Grow in Low-Light Areas

Aglaonema (Chinese Evergreen)

Aglaonema has striking variegated leaves in shades of red, pink, yellow, and green. Place this plant in a space that needs some color and you will not have any need for flowers.

Chinese evergreens thrive in low-light areas and they are also very drought tolerant, so if you forget to water it for a while there will be no harm done. Perfect for people new to houseplants or those who consider themselves “black thumb gardeners.

The older hybrids, mostly colored green, can take low light and grow well. The newer colorful hybrids need medium light and do well in an east or west window. If placed in low light, they will lose their bright coloration.

Chamaedorea elegans (Parlor Palm)

Also known as Neanthebella Palm, this is the best choice in palms for a low light location. Suitable to situate on a tabletop or floor, like all palms check the soil moisture regularly.

Chlorophytum comosum (Spider Plant)

Spider plants love low light and do not require much attention other than occasional watering when the soil feels dry. They send out long spindly leaves and small white flowers that will cascade down the edge of their container, making them a great choice for an indoor hanging basket.

Dieffenbachia spp. (Dumbcane)

Dieffenbachia is one of the easiest and most popular indoor houseplants to grow. Many species offering colorful leaves with bright patterns prefer medium light but will tolerate low light very well. Allow the soil to dry out in between waterings.

Dracaena fragrans (Corn Plant)

These low-maintenance houseplants need to be placed somewhere that doesn’t get any direct sunlight and water occasionally, being careful not to overwater.

Keep in mind that corn plant is toxic to cats and dogs, so if you have a furry friend that likes to chew on the houseplants, skip this one.

Epipremnum aurem (Pothos/ Devils’s Ivy)

One of the most popular plants for hanging in a low-light spot, this one’s for you! Plant it in a basket or up on a pedestal and watch the variegated green leaves trail down in an elegant display.

Maranta leuconeura (Prayer Plant)

Marantha leuconeura is a good choice if you want something with a low light indoor plant with bright foliage to add a pop of color to a drab area of the house because its leaves have variegation in rich green, purple, yellow, and red.

This houseplant needs to be kept out of direct sunlight to help keep the variegated pattern on the leaves vibrant. Plant it in well-draining soil and check soil moisture regularly. The leaves will point upwards at night like hands in prayer, which is where it got its common name “prayer plant.”

Sansevieria (Snake Plant)

Snake plants are known for being difficult to kill, so they are perfect for a small windowless bathroom, stairway, or bedroom corner. Sansevieria is a type of succulent, which means it retains water in its leaves and can be easy to overwater. Pay attention and only water when the soil feels completely dry to the touch, every three weeks or so.

Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily)

These pretty houseplants have lush, dark green leaves and delicate white flowers, but in addition to being beautiful, they also do an exceptional job of cleaning the air and keeping it healthy for us. Peace lilies do well in dark or bright areas, so feel free to place these all over your home if you like!

These plants like to be kept moist and humid, so water regularly to keep your peace lily happy and blooming. If you aren’t watering it enough, you will know because the leaves will droop. Don’t worry, if you see this happening just give it a good drink and watch it perk back up in no time.

Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Zam Zam Plant)

Not only does this houseplant grow happily in low-light areas of the home, but it is also very low maintenance and can be left alone with no attention at all for long periods of time, so you can go on vacation and not worry about coming home to a dead plant. Its glossy, bright green leaves add a cheerful pop of color to any dark space.

Bioluminescence is more common in animals but algea and plankton do exhibit it. A kickstarter project to make a plant that glows in the dark is in development.

This article shows a picture of a beach in the Maldives glowing at night due to the action of phytoplankton.

At the moment there are no vascular or higher order plants like grass that glow in the dark naturally.

With a bit of genetic tinkering almost anything could glow in the dark.

I haven't heard of or seen plants that glow in the dark naturally, though some species of mycelium do naturally glow in the dark:

Some many years ago while camping somewhere in Minnesota we setup camp and used a large rotting log for a seat. When it got dark I started noticing some light from below and to our surprise the whole log was glowing. The glowing species must be common in that area because we started finding it all over the place.

I expect you read this article in New Scientist or one similar to it:

Kyle Taylor, a founder of Glowing Plant, splices firefly genes into plants and wants to demystify the process by showing you how to do it at home

So how do you make these plants glow? Essentially we take genes from bioluminescent organisms – such as fireflies and bioluminescent bacteria – and insert them into the plant. So the plants have an eerie blue-green glow.

How much light do the plants emit? Should I toss out all of my light bulbs? At this point, no. They are still pretty weak, but they are visible in a dark room. Plants didn't evolve to emit light, they evolved to absorb it. But you have to start somewhere, and this is our starting point.

It's not really about the plants, it's about demystifying GMO. That said, they got their kickstarter funding and now say they will start to ship this fall.

5. Dracaena “Janet Craig” (Dracaena deremensis)

Rated as one of the best plants for removing trichloroethylene from the air, the Dracaena is also one of the easiest houseplants to grow. The mature plant reaches 10 feet in height with a spread of three feet, and can live for decades if properly maintained.

These plants do best in indirect sunlight coming from the east/west, or semi-shade. They can adapt to lower light levels if the watering is reduced. Keep the soil evenly moist and never let the plant get soggy. In the same way, avoid letting the root ball dry out completely. Water less frequently in the winter months. Mist frequently with warm water, removing any dead leaves. (Leaf tips will go brown if the plant is under watered but this browning may be trimmed.) If possible, avoid fluoridated water, since these plants can be sensitive to fluoride.

In spring and summer, feed with liquid fertilizer every two weeks. Refrain from fertilizing during the wintertime. Repot using a commercial potting soil every other year. The plant’s ideal temperature range is 60-70 F (16-24 C). The plant can survive in lower temperatures (as low as 50 F or 10 C), but the leaves may suffer, turning yellow. They are also susceptible to mites, scale insects, and mealybugs—more so when the air is too dry. Keep humidity above 40% and remove insects when they appear with a wash of soapy water.

List of Plants That Grow Without Sunlight

1. Dracaena

Dracaena is a beautiful houseplant that you can grow at home. There are about 50 species of it. It’s one of the easy to grow houseplants.

Occasional pruning and regular watering are important for dracaena. Keep the plant away from direct sun and avoid overwatering.

Check out some of the best indoor Dracaena varieties here

2. Bromeliads Bromeliad is a perfect plant to grow indoors, most of the varieties of this plant thrive easily in a container in the shade. Indeed, it is a tropical plant, but you can grow it anywhere, indoors. It can even grow in luminescent light.

Here are some of the major problems you need to keep in check that kills houseplants

3. Maidenhair Fern

When it comes to ferns that are popular, maidenhair fern is one you should consider. The dark and glossy leafstalk resembles human hair, and it looks great.

Be sure to water frequently (avoid overwatering) and keep this houseplant in indirect sun.

Here are some of the best hanging ferns you can grow

4. Parlor Palm Most popular indoor palm variety, it’s an excellent houseplant for almost any situation, it grows even in those dim corners where nothing else will grow. It requires only minimal care and moderate light. It produces clusters of tiny yellow flowers in spring however, they don’t appear in low light conditions. Water only when soil is dry otherwise, you’ll kill your plant.

Want to grow indoor palms? Here are some of the best types

5. Umbrella Papyrus (Palm)

Umbrella palm is an evergreen ornamental plant, best grown indoors or in shady and a boggy spot in the garden. Many houseplant enthusiasts find this plant easy enough to grow and maintain.

It requires a constantly moist substrate. You can place the umbrella palm pot over the tray filled with water.

6. Mother-in-law’s Tongue (Snake Plant)

Mother-in-law’s tongue is a low maintenance plant also known as a snake plant. It’s a very durable and popular houseplant. Its ability to tolerate darkness is amazing. One more interesting fact about this houseplant is–It’s a succulent!

Check our out our article on growing snake plant here

7. Creeping Fig

It’s a slow-growing creeper with small, leathery dark green foliage. Vigorous-growing, clinging, dense branches adhere to any surface and look enchanting.

Be careful not to overwater creeping fig. Let the soil dry out before watering spells .

8. Philodendron

Philodendron easily adapts to low-light conditions, and growing them is similar to pothos. They come in both vine and shrub form .

The soil must be constantly moist but not wet. It’s best if the soil dries out slightly between watering spells.

Here is everything you need to know about Philodendron care

9. Calathea (Peacock Plant) One of the most beautiful foliage plants you should grow in your home. It grows well in light shade, but the plant is demanding, it has a specific minimum temperature of 55 F (13 C) requirement that should be maintained. It prefers frequent watering (watering should be done according to the light condition and temperature) and slightly moist soil. 10. Maranta leuconeura (Prayer Plant)

Calatheas are tropical plants and a bit difficult to grow in cooler climates, and so the prayer plant, but it is one alternative you can go for, it is comparatively easy to grow plant than calathea. It grows well in moderate light without direct access to the sun. If the plant is kept in too much light, the leaves begin to curl and wither.

Watch out for pests, especially spider mites.

11. Boston Fern

Boston fern can become a beautiful evergreen houseplant. Like other houseplants, don’t place this in direct sunlight but provide it all day long, bright indirect sunlight.

It grows well in acidic soil. Keep the soil lightly moist but well-draining. It loves humid surroundings, so do regular misting to maintain the humidity levels.

12. Peperomia Peperomia is a small striking adorable houseplant that grows up to only 6 inches tall. Due to its thick foliage, it is often considered succulent, which is not true. Peperomia likes slightly moist soil and humidity, but watering should be reduced in winter. S praying the plant’s leaves is helpful in maintaining the humidity level. 13. Devil’s Ivy (Golden Pothos/Money Plant) Commonly known as the money plant in South East Asia, it’s widely grown as a houseplant in Asian countries. This extremely low maintenance vine grows easily without direct sunlight. Excellent climber, you can grow it even in the bathroom, kitchen, or living room. It is known for its ability to clean the Carbon Monoxide from the air.

To know how to care for a pothos plant, click here

14. Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema)

Chinese Evergreen plants are one of the best plants to grow indoors that don’t require constant, direct sunlight. If you are someone who’s new to growing houseplants, this is the plant you should start with.

15. Cast Iron Plant (Aspidistra Elatior)

The cast iron plant is very forgiving by nature, a great plant if you are always busy and forget about the maintenance. It is very much happy staying indoors without the sun. Just wipe its leaves clean with a damp cloth once a week or so, and provide it bright indirect light.

16. Orchids (Orchidaceae)

One of the key points in growing orchids the right way is to provide them indirect sunlight. Coming in an astonishing array of colors, varieties, and mesmerizing fragrances, exotic and graceful orchids are your best bet!

17. Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana)

According to Feng Shui, it attracts positive vibes and good fortune. It’s one of the best office desk and tabletop plants. Compact in nature, you can also grow it in water in corners of your home that receive some bright light in the day. We also added it to our list of best Office Desk Plants.

Here’s all you need to know about growing Lucky Bamboo

18. Staghorn Fern (Platycerium)

If you can maintain this one right, Staghorn Fern is the right choice for you! It’ll save you from the hassles of placing it near a sunlight source every few days.

19. ZZ Plant (Zamioculcasi)

Not only this plant looks really good with its attractive, glossy foliage–It is a plant that you can forget about when it comes to sunlight. ZZ grows well indirect light and absolutely love the shaded areas of the house. The only requirement is the warmer surroundings.

Check out some astonishing benefits of ZZ Plant here

20. Peperomia (Peperomia)

What makes these plants perfect for your tabletop is the fact they are one of the best plants that grow without sunlight. Place them near a window that allows them to absorb indirect light throughout the day.

21. Dumb Cane (Dieffenbachia)

If you can keep this plant away from your pets and children, it can be a welcoming addition to your home. It’s a toxic houseplant, so be careful about the placement. It does really well in filtered light, making it a perfect houseplant for low light areas!

Here are some of the most amazing benefits Dumb Cane has on offer

22. Japanese Sedge (Carex morrowii)

Japanese sedge is a shade-loving ornamental grass, it grows well indoors. It requires a spot that receives bright indirect sunlight.

23. Spider Plant

Imagine the graceful variegated foliage of a spider plant dangling down with unique spiderettes in hanging baskets. Isn’t it enough to entice you to grow it? Also, it l ikes indirect light and one of the best air-purifying plants.

Direct sun light often causes the burning of leaves.

24. Peace Lily

If you’re looking for a houseplant with health benefits, acquire a peace lily. Also, it is forgiving and requires low care. I ncredibly easy to grow, peace lily flourishes in shady locations.

25. Silver Queen (Aglaonema) Silver queen is a very beautiful plant. It’s one of the most durable houseplants that thrive in low light, it’s an ideal plant for beginners too. However, the plant is extremely cold sensitive. 26. Aloe Vera

The most popular and number one houseplant of the United States these days, and rightly so. This medicinal plant can grow in direct sunlight, but it tolerates full shade too. Learn everything about growing aloe vera here.

Small and Tiny Terrarium Plants

Small terrarium plants are the ones that you can include in a classic, closed, jar-type terrarium, but also in many other types of terrarium setups. Their lighting requirements tend to vary, so pay attention to that particular aspect when planning.


Mosses are everyone’s choice for first experiments with terrariums, but also a keeper for many experienced terrarium designers.

Besides the fact that they are free and easy to find outdoors, mosses have a unique visual appeal. Also, they are virtually care-free and can be left in a closed terrarium for years with no interventions. They are also the most tolerant to low-light conditions.

Mosses are primitive, non-vascular plants that reproduce by spores. Although we often use the term “moss” as a singular, there are at least 12,000 moss species around the world. Obviously, not all of them live in your backyard, but you will surely be able to find several species with different textures and shades of green. That variety will add depth and playfulness to your terrarium moss patch.

Nerve plant (Fittonia)

Low growth, small leaf size, love for moisture and attractive nervature makes Fittonia one of terrarium favorites.

The main feature of Fittonias is the leaves’ nerves, which come in three colors – red, pink, and white. All varieties are beautiful in their own way. You can combine the two to create stunning terrarium landscapes.

Nerve plants are native to tropical rainforests, so they thrive in conditions similar to the rainforest floor – soft, indirect light, and high humidity.

Pinch back regularly to keep the plant compact.

Polka Dot Plant (Hypoestes phyllostachya)

If you prefer dots and irregular shapes in place of straight lines, “polka dot” is a plant for you. It can grow to be 12-20 inches tall. If circumstances are favorable, it will also produce interesting, tiny lilac flowers in the summer.

Unlike many other terrarium-friendly plants, it prefers bright light – in low light conditions, its leaves will turn dull green. That is why the polka dot plant is especially valuable to consider if you plan to have your terrarium in partial sun.

The drawback – especially for should-be long-lasting terrarium setups – is that H. phyllostachya withers away quickly after flowering. Even if you prevent the plant from flowering by removing the emerging flower stem, it will get leggy with age and will eventually need to be replaced. Pinching to keep the plant compact extends its lifetime a bit.

Luckily, the cuttings can be easily rooted to create new plants to replace the old one. You can just stick a cutting into the moist substrate. If you let the plant complete its lifecycle, you can also propagate it by seeds.

There is a decent number of polka dot cultivars, with leaves that are green, white, pink, and/or carmine. The colors can appear in the form of dots, stains or streaks. Shades of green can also vary.

Starfish plant (Cryptanthus bivittatus)

Starfish plant, also known as Earth Star, is an attractive little Brasilian plant with humble needs. The main reason Starfish plant is an all-time terrarium favorite is its shape, and also its vivid coloration. Its average height is only 6 inches, which makes it great for small terrariums, and ideal to take foreground position.

Starfish plants like humidity and prefer bright to moderate light. The brighter the light, the more expressed are its colors.

Be careful when planting your starfish – each of its 10 to 12 leaves has a series of tiny spikes on the edges. They don’t break off and can’t get stuck in your skin, but still, they can give you an uncomfortable surprise if you are not careful.

Baby Tears (Soleirolia soleirolii)

Baby tears is a plant known for its ability to form mats of tiny, vividly green, bean-shaped leaves that will spread over everything and “spill” over the sides of a pot. In a terrarium, they are ideal to fill out empty spots.

This plant thrives in high humidity. Keep them out of direct sunlight and by all means, prevent dry conditions. Also, do not handle the plant roughly, as the little branches are brittle and the plant can be damaged relatively easily during improper handling.

The Aluminum Plant (Pilea cadierei)

Another plant with exquisite-looking decorative little leaves is the aluminum plant or Watermelon pilea. This Vietnamese jewel got its name for the fact that the silvery raised patches on the leaves resemble aluminum foil. Also, when viewed as a whole, the leaves look like tiny watermelons.

The aluminum plant is a typical modest tropical plant that prefers low to medium light and is adapted to warm temperatures.

You will need to pinch it back from time to time to promote bushy growth. The plant grows quickly, so there is no need to be scared of pinching back for that reason. It roots easily, so you can use the pinched parts to create new plants.


Hill JO, Peters JC . Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science 1998 280: 1371–1374.

Buysschaert B, Aydin S, Morelle J, Hermans MP, Jadoul M, Demoulin N . Weight loss at a high cost: orlistat-induced late-onset severe kidney disease. Diabetes Metab 2016 42: 62–64.

Filippatos TD, Derdemezis CS, Gazi IF, Nakou ES, Mikhailidis DP . Orlistat-associated adverse effects and drug interactions—a critical review. Drug Safety 2008 31: 53–65.

Kose M, Emet S, Akpinar TS, Ilhan M, Gok AFK, Dadashov M et al. An unexpected result of obesity treatment: orlistat-related acute pancreatitis. Case Rep Gastroenterol 2015 9: 152–155.

Douglas A, Douglas JG, Robertson CE, Munro JF . Plasma phentermine levels, weight loss and side-effects. Int J Obes 1983 7: 591–595.

Rosen ED, Spiegelman BM . What we talk about when we talk about fat. Cell 2014 156: 20–44.

Harms M, Seale P . Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential. Nat Med 2013 19: 1252–1263.

Cannon B, Nedergaard J . Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 2004 84: 277–359.

van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Vanhommerig JW, Smulders NM, Drossaerts JM, Kemerink GJ, Bouvy ND et al. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009 360: 1500–1508.

Cypess AM, Weiner LS, Roberts-Toler C, Franquet Elía E, Kessler SH, Kahn PA et al. Activation of human brown adipose tissue by a beta 3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Cell Metab 2015 21: 33–38.

Symonds ME, Pope M, Budge H . The ontogeny of brown adipose tissue. Annu Rev Nutr 2015 35: 295–320.

Zhang Z, Zhang H, Li B, Meng X, Wang J, Zhang Y et al. Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue. Nat Commun 2014 5: 5493.

Song NJ, Choi S, Rajbhandari P, Chang SH, Kim S, Vergnes L et al. Prdm4 induction by the small molecule butein promotes white adipose tissue browning. Nat Chem Biol 2016 12: 479–481.

van Dam AD, Nahon KJ, Kooijman S, van den Berg SM, Kanhai AA, Kikuchi T et al. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice. Diabetes 2015 64: 1544–1554.

Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Funayama K, Miyashita K . Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues. Biochem Bioph Res Co 2005 332: 392–397.

Ohno H, Shinoda K, Spiegelman BM, Kajimura S . PPAR gamma agonists induce a white-to-brown fat conversion through stabilization of PRDM16 protein. Cell Metab 2012 15: 395–404.

Nicholls DG . The physiological regulation of uncoupling proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006 1757: 459–466.

Ricquier D . Uncoupling protein 1 of brown adipocytes, the only uncoupler: a historical perspective. Front Endocrinol 2011 2: 85.

Saito M, Okamatsu-Ogura Y, Matsushita M, Watanabe K, Yoneshiro T, Nio-Kobayashi J et al. High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans effects of cold exposure and adiposity. Diabetes 2009 58: 1526–1531.

Huang SG . Binding of fatty acids to the uncoupling protein from brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003 412: 142–146.

Beck V, Jabůrek M, Demina T, Rupprecht A, Porter RK, Jezek P et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate human uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 in planar lipid bilayers. FASEB J 2007 21: 1137–1144.

Minokoshi Y, Kim YB, Peroni OD, Fryer LG, Müller C, Carling D et al. Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature 2002 415: 339–343.

Chouchani ET, Kazak L, Jedrychowski MP, Lu GZ, Erickson BK, Szpyt J et al. Mitochondrial ROS regulate thermogenic energy expenditure and sulfenylation of UCP1. Nature 2016 532: 112–116.

Sears IB, MacGinnitie MA, Kovacs LG, Graves RA . Differentiation-dependent expression of the brown adipocyte uncoupling protein gene: regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Mol Cell Biol 1996 16: 3410–3419.

Seale P, Kajimura S, Yang W, Chin S, Rohas LM, Uldry M et al. Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. Cell Metab 2007 6: 38–54.

Kajimura S, Seale P, Kubota K, Lunsford E, Frangioni JV, Gygi SP et al. Initiation of myoblast to brown fat switch by a PRDM16-C/EBP-beta transcriptional complex. Nature 2009 460: 1154–1158.

Puigserver P, Wu Z, Park CW, Graves R, Wright M, Spiegelman BM . A cold-inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis. Cell 1998 92: 829–839.

Lin J, Wu PH, Tarr PT, Lindenberg KS, St-Pierre J, Zhang CY et al. Defects in adaptive energy metabolism with CNS-linked hyperactivity in PGC-1alpha null mice. Cell 2004 119: 121–135.

Uldry M, Yang W, St-Pierre J, Lin J, Seale P, Spiegelman BM . Complementary action of the PGC-1 coactivators in mitochondrial biogenesis and brown fat differentiation. Cell Metab 2006 3: 333–341.

Kazak L, Chouchani ET, Jedrychowski MP, Erickson BK, Shinoda K, Cohen P et al. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat. Cell 2015 163: 643–655.

Ukropec J, Anunciado RP, Ravussin Y, Hulver MW, Kozak LP . UCP1-independent thermogenesis in white adipose tissue of cold-acclimated Ucp1−/− mice. J Biol Chem 2006 281: 31894–31908.

Long JZ, Svensson KJ, Bateman LA, Lin H, Kamenecka T, Lokurkar IA et al. The secreted enzyme PM20D1 regulates lipidated amino acid uncouplers of mitochondria. Cell 2016 166: 424–435.

Kajimura S, Seale P, Tomaru T, Erdjument-Bromage H, Cooper MP, Ruas JL et al. Regulation of the brown and white fat gene programs through a PRDM16/CtBP transcriptional complex. Gene Dev 2008 22: 1397–1409.

Seale P, Conroe HM, Estall J, Kajimura S, Frontini A, Ishibashi J et al. Prdm16 determines the thermogenic program of subcutaneous white adipose tissue in mice. J Clin Invest 2011 121: 96–105.

Cohen P, Levy JD, Zhang Y, Frontini A, Kolodin DP, Svensson KJ et al. Ablation of PRDM16 and beige adipose causes metabolic dysfunction and a subcutaneous to visceral fat switch. Cell 2014 156: 304–316.

Seale P, Bjork B, Yang W, Kajimura S, Chin S, Kuang S et al. PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature 2008 454: 961–967.

Ohno H, Shinoda K, Ohyama K, Sharp LZ, Kajimura S . EHMT1 controls brown adipose cell fate and thermogenesis through the PRDM16 complex. Nature 2013 504: 163–167.

Villanueva CJ, Vergnes L, Wang J, Drew BG, Hong C, Tu Y et al. Adipose subtype-selective recruitment of TLE3 or Prdm16 by PPAR gamma specifies lipid storage versus thermogenic gene programs. Cell Metab 2013 17: 423–435.

Iida S, Chen W, Nakadai T, Ohkuma Y, Roeder RG . PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat- specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with mediator subunit MED1. Gene Dev 2015 29: 308–321.

Harms MJ, Lim HW, Ho Y, Shapira SN, Ishibashi J . PRDM16 binds MED1 and controls chromatin architecture to determine a brown fat transcriptional program. Genes Dev 2015 29: 298–307.

Kong X, Banks A, Liu T, Kazak L, Rao RR, Cohen P et al. IRF4 is a key thermogenic transcriptional partner of PGC-1 alpha. Cell 2014 158: 69–83.

Davis KE, Moldes M, Farmer SR . The forkhead transcription factor FoxC2 inhibits white adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem 2004 279: 42453–42461.

Gerin I, Bommer GT, Lidell ME, Cederberg A, Enerback S, Macdougald OA . On the role of FOX transcription factors in adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. J Biol Chem 2009 284: 10755–10763.

You W, Fan L, Duan D, Tian L, Dang X, Wang C et al. Foxc2 over-expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulates osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenic differentiation. Mol Cell Biochem 2014 386: 125–134.

Cederberg A, Grønning LM, Ahrén B, Taskén K, Carlsson P, Enerbäck S . FOXC2 is a winged helix gene that counteracts obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and diet-induced insulin resistance. Cell 2001 106: 563–573.

Dempersmier J, Sambeat A, Gulyaeva O, Paul SM, Hudak CS, Raposo HF et al. Cold-inducible Zfp516 activates UCP1 transcription to promote browning of white fat and development of brown fat. Mol Cell 2015 57: 235–246.

Sambeat A, Gulyaeva O, Dempersmier J, Tharp KM, Stahl A, Paul SM et al. LSD1 interacts with Zfp516 to promote UCP1 transcription and brown fat program. Cell Rep 2016 15: 2536–2549.

Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC et al. A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature 2012 481: 463–468.

Lee P, Linderman JD, Smith S, Brychta RJ, Wang J, Idelson C et al. Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans. Cell Metab 2014 19: 302–309.

Jedrychowski MP, Wrann CD, Paulo JA, Gerber KK, Szpyt J, Robinson MM et al. Detection and quantitation of circulating human irisin by tandem mass spectrometry. Cell Metab 2015 22: 734–740.

Fisher FM, Maratos-Flier E . Understanding the physiology of FGF21. Annu Rev Physiol 2016 78: 223–241.

Fisher FM, Kleiner S, Douris N, Fox EC, Mepani RJ, Verdeguer F et al. FGF21 regulates PGC-1 alpha and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis. Gene Dev 2012 26: 271–281.

Nguyen KD, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh YP, Mwangi J, David T et al. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature 2011 480: 104–108.

Lee MW, Odegaard JI, Mukundan L, Qiu Y, Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC et al. Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis. Cell 2015 160: 74–87.

Abd El-Wahab AE, Ghareeb DA, Sarhan EE, Abu-Serie MM, El Demellawy MA . In vitro biological assessment of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013 13: 218.

Cernáková M, Kost'álová D, Kettmann V, Plodová M, Tóth J, Drímal J . Potential antimutagenic activity of berberine, a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium. BMC Complement Altern Med 2002 2: 2.

Brown PN, Roman MC . Determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 2008 91: 694–701.

Hashida K, Tabata M, Kuroda K, Otsuka Y, Kubo S, Makino S et al. Phenolic extractives in the trunk of Toxicodendron vernicifluum: chemical characteristics, contents and radial distribution. J Wood Sci 2014 60: 160–168.

Song NJ, Yoon HJ, Kim KH, Jung SR, Jang WS, Seo CR et al. Butein is a novel anti-adipogenic compound. J Lipid Res 2013 54: 1385–1396.

Sung J, Lee J . Anti-inflammatory activity of butein and luteolin through suppression of NF kappa B activation and induction of heme oxygenase-1. J Med Food 2015 18: 557–564.

Zhang L, Chen W, Li X . A novel anticancer effect of butein: inhibition of invasion through the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. FEBS Lett 2008 582: 1821–1828.

Usman MG, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Malek MA, Latif MA . Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography. Molecules 2014 19: 6474–6488.

Zhang LL, Yan Liu D, Ma LQ, Luo ZD, Cao TB, Zhong J et al. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity. Circ Res 2007 100: 1063–1070.

Luo Z, Ma L, Zhao Z, He H, Yang D, Feng X et al. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1 alpha upregulation in mice. Cell Res 2012 22: 551–564.

Joo JI, Kim DH, Choi JW, Yun JW . Proteomic analysis for antiobesity potential of capsaicin on white adipose tissue in rats fed with a high fat diet. J Proteome Res 2010 9: 2977–2987.

Ludy MJ, Moore GE, Mattes RD . The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on energy balance: critical review and meta-analyses of studies in humans. Chem Senses 2012 37: 103–121.

Andero R, Ressler KJ . Fear extinction and BDNF: translating animal models of PTSD to the clinic. Genes Brain Behav 2012 11: 503–512.

Liu CY, Chan CB, Ye KQ . 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a small molecular TrkB agonist, is useful for treating various BDNF-implicated human disorders. Transl Neurodegener 2016 5: 2.

Zeng Y, Wang X, Wang Q, Liu S, Hu X, McClintock SM . Small molecules activating TrkB receptor for treating a variety of CNS disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2013 12: 1066–1077.

Chan CB, Tse MC, Liu X, Zhang S, Schmidt R, Otten R et al. Activation of muscular TrkB by its small molecular agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone sex-dependently regulates energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. Chem Biol 2015 22: 355–368.

Peng J, Yuan JP, Wu CF, Wang JH . Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health. Mar Drugs 2011 9: 1806–1828.

Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Murakami-Funayama K, Miyashita K . Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of fucoxanthin on diet-induced obesity conditions in a murine model. Mol Med Rep 2009 2: 897–902.

Kumar SR, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K . Fucoxanthin: a marine carotenoid exerting anti-cancer effects by affecting multiple mechanisms. Mar Drugs 2013 11: 5130–5147.

Maeda H, Tsukui T, Sashima T, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K . Seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, as a multi-functional nutrient. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008 17: 196–199.

Rosen ED, MacDougald OA . Adipocyte differentiation from the inside out. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2006 7: 885–896.

Fukui Y, Masui S, Osada S, Umesono K, Motojima K . A new thiazolidinedione, NC-2100, which is a weak PPAR-gamma activator, exhibits potent antidiabetic effects and induces uncoupling protein 1 in white adipose tissue of KKAy obese mice. Diabetes 2000 49: 759–767.

Petrovic N, Walden TB, Shabalina IG, Timmons JA, Cannon B, Nedergaard J . Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes. J Biol Chem 2010 285: 7153–7164.

Wilson-Fritch L, Nicoloro S, Chouinard M, Lazar MA, Chui PC, Leszyk J et al. Mitochondrial remodeling in adipose tissue associated with obesity and treatment with rosiglitazone. J Clin Invest 2004 114: 1281–1289.

Moisan A, Lee YK, Zhang JD, Hudak CS, Meyer CA, Prummer M et al. White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition. Nat Cell Biol 2015 17: 57–67.

Andersson ER, Lendahl U . Therapeutic modulation of Notch signalling—are we there yet? Nat Rev Drug Discov 2014 13: 359–380.

Bi PP, Kuang SH . Notch signaling as a novel regulator of metabolism. Trends Endocrin Met 2015 26: 248–255.

Bi P, Shan T, Liu W, Yue F, Yang X, Liang XR et al. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity. Nat Med 2014 20: 911–918.

Anderson K, Wherle L, Park M, Nelson K, Nguyen L . Salsalate, an old, inexpensive drug with potential new indications: a review of the evidence from 3 recent studies. Am Health Drug Benefits 2014 7: 231–235.

Rumore MM, Kim KS . Potential role of salicylates in type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother 2010 44: 1207–1221.

Goldfine AB, Fonseca V, Jablonski KA, Pyle L, Staten MA, Shoelson SE . The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010 152: 346–357.

Meex RCR, Phielix E, Moonen-Kornips E, Schrauwen P, Hesselink MKC . Stimulation of human whole-body energy expenditure by salsalate is fueled by higher lipid oxidation under fasting conditions and by higher oxidative glucose disposal under insulin-stimulated conditions. J Clin Endocr Metab 2011 96: 1415–1423.

Cao W, Medvedev AV, Daniel KW, Collins S . beta-Adrenergic activation of p38 MAP kinase in adipocytes: cAMP induction of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene requires p38 MAP kinase. J Biol Chem 2001 276: 27077–27082.

Lowell BB, Spiegelman BM . Towards a molecular understanding of adaptive thermogenesis. Nature 2000 404: 652–660.

Jimenez M, Barbatelli G, Allevi R, Cinti S, Seydoux J, Giacobino JP et al. beta(3)-Adrenoceptor knockout in C57BL/6J mice depresses the occurrence of brown adipocytes in white fat. Eur J Biochem 2003 270: 699–705.

Bachman ES, Dhillon H, Zhang CY, Cinti S, Bianco AC, Kobika BK et al. betaAR signaling required for diet-induced thermogenesis and obesity resistance. Science 2002 297: 843–845.

Wu J, Boström P, Sparks LM, Ye L, Choi JH, Giang AH et al. Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human. Cell 2012 150: 366–376.

Cinti S, Cancello R, Zingaretti MC, Ceresi E, De Matteis R, Giordano A et al. CL316,243 and cold stress induce heterogeneous expression of UCP1 mRNA and protein in rodent brown adipocytes. J Histochem Cytochem 2002 50: 21–31.

Wang J, Liu R, Wang F, Hong J, Li X, Chen M et al. Ablation of LGR4 promotes energy expenditure by driving white-to-brown fat switch. Nat Cell Biol 2013 15: 1455–1463.

Haas B, Mayer P, Jennissen K, Scholz D, Berriel Diaz M, Bloch W et al. Protein kinase G controls brown fat cell differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sci Signal 2009 2: ra78.

Mitschke MM, Hoffmann LS, Gnad T, Scholz D, Kruithoff K, Mayer P et al. Increased cGMP promotes healthy expansion and browning of white adipose tissue. FASEB J 2013 27: 1621–1630.

Hoffmann LS, Etzrodt J, Willkomm L, Sanyal A, Scheja L, Fisher AW et al. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue. Nat Commun 2015 6: 7235.

Kessler RJ, Tyson CA, Green DE . Mechanism of uncoupling in mitochondria: uncouplers as ionophores for cycling cations and protons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1976 73: 3141–3145.

Grundlingh J, Dargan PI, El-Zanfaly M, Wood DM . 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death. J Med Toxicol 2011 7: 205–212.

Petróczi A, Ocampo JA, Shah I, Jenkinson C, New R, James RA et al. Russian roulette with unlicensed fat-burner drug 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): evidence from a multidisciplinary study of the internet, bodybuilding supplements and DNP users. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2015 10: 39.

Tecott LH . Serotonin and the orchestration of energy balance. Cell Metab 2007 6: 352–361.

Crane JD, Palanivel R, Mottillo EP, Bujak AL, Wang H, Ford RJ et al. Inhibiting peripheral serotonin synthesis reduces obesity and metabolic dysfunction by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Nat Med 2015 21: 166–172.

Oh CM, Namkung J, Go Y, Shong KE, Kim K, Kim H et al. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues. Nat Commun 2015 6: 6794.

Rogatzki MJ, Ferguson BS, Goodwin ML, Gladden LB . Lactate is always the end product of glycolysis. Front Neurosci 2015 9: 22.

Carrière A, Jeanson Y, Berger-Müller S, André M, Chenouard V, Arnaud E et al. Browning of white adipose cells by intermediate metabolites: an adaptive mechanism to alleviate redox pressure. Diabetes 2014 63: 3253–3265.

Roberts LD, Boström P, O'Sullivan JF, Schinzel RT, Lewis GD, Dejam A et al. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic beta-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Cell Metab 2014 19: 96–108.

Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT . The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2008 7: 156–167.

Roberts LD, Ashmore T, Kotwica AO, Murfitt SA, Fernandez BO, Fellisch M et al. Inorganic nitrate promotes the browning of white adipose tissue through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Diabetes 2015 64: 471–484.

Burnstock G . Physiology and pathophysiology of purinergic neurotransmission. Physiol Rev 2007 87: 659–797.

Schimmel RJ, McCarthy L . Role of adenosine as an endogenous regulator of respiration in hamster brown adipocytes. Am J Physiol 1984 246: C301–C307.

Szillat D, Bukowiecki LJ . Control of brown adipose tissue lipolysis and respiration by adenosine. Am J Physiol 1983 245: E555–E559.

Gnad T, Scheibler S, von Kügelgen I, Scheele C, Kilić A, Glöde A et al. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors. Nature 2014 516: 395–399.

Guo T, Marmol P, Moliner A, Björnholm M, Zhang C, Shokat KM et al. Adipocyte ALK7 links nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance in obesity. Elife 2014 3: e03245.

Ouellet V, Labbé SM, Blondin DP, Phoenix S, Guérin B, Haman F et al. Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. J Clin Invest 2012 122: 545–552.

Zingaretti MC, Crosta F, Vitali A, Guerrieri M, Frontini A, Cannon B et al. The presence of UCP1 demonstrates that metabolically active adipose tissue in the neck of adult humans truly represents brown adipose tissue. FASEB J 2009 23: 3113–3120.

Xue Y, Xu X, Zhang XQ, Farokhzad OC, Langer R . Preventing diet-induced obesity in mice by adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis using targeted nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2016 113: 5552–5557.

Chau YY, Hastie N . Wt1, the mesothelium and the origins and heterogeneity of visceral fat progenitors. Adipocyte 2015 4: 217–221.

Bartness TJ, Vaughan CH, Song CK . Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue. Int J Obesity 2010 34: S36–S42.

Zhang W, Bi S . Hypothalamic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy homeostasis. Front Endocrinol 2015 6: 136.

Ma S, Yu H, Zhao Z, Luo Z, Chen J, Ni Y et al. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity. J Mol Cell Biol 2012 4: 88–96.

Baboota RK, Singh DP, Sarma SM, Kaur J, Sandhir R, Boparai RK et al. Capsaicin induces ‘Brite’ phenotype in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PLoS ONE 2014 9: e103093.

Ye L, Kleiner S, Wu J, Sah R, Gupta RK, Banks AS et al. TRPV4 is a regulator of adipose oxidative metabolism, inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Cell 2012 151: 96–110.

Richard D, Carpentier AC, Dore G, Ouellet V, Picard F . Determinants of brown adipocyte development and thermogenesis. Int J Obes 2010 34 (Suppl 2): S59–S66.

Beiroa D, Imbernon M, Gallego R, Senra A, Herranz D, Villarroya F et al. GLP-1 agonism stimulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning through hypothalamic AMPK. Diabetes 2014 63: 3346–3358.

Shimasaki T, Masaki T, Mitsutomi K, Ueno D, Gotoh K, Chiba S et al. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor des-fluoro-sitagliptin regulates brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein levels in mice with diet-induced obesity. PLoS ONE 2013 8: e63626.

Tisdale MJ . Cachexia in cancer patients. Nat Rev Cancer 2002 2: 862–871.

Hyltander A, Drott C, Korner U, Sandstrom R, Lundholm K . Elevated energy expenditure in cancer patients with solid tumours. Eur J Cancer 1991 27: 9–15.

Kir S, White JP, Kleiner S, Kazak L, Cohen P, Baracos VE et al. Tumour-derived PTH-related protein triggers adipose tissue browning and cancer cachexia. Nature 2014 513: 100–104.

Petruzzelli M, Schweiger M, Schreiber R, Campos-Olivas R, Tsoli M, Allen J et al. A switch from white to brown fat increases energy expenditure in cancer-associated cachexia. Cell Metab 2014 20: 433–447.

Clemmensen C, Finan B, Fischer K, Tom RZ, Legutko B, Sehrer L et al. Dual melanocortin-4 receptor and GLP-1 receptor agonism amplifies metabolic benefits in diet-induced obese mice. EMBO Mol Med 2015 7: 288–298.

Lee YH, Jung YS, Choi D . Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential. Exp Mol Med 2014 46: e78.

Mao T, Yan Q, Zhou F, Shen Y . Isolation and identification of berberine from cell cultures of Coptis chinensis. Chin J Biotechnol 1997 13: 193–199.

Watch the video: Αδυνάτισμα Και Καύση Λίπους Με 2 Απλά Συστατικά Για 15 Μέρες! (September 2022).


  1. Yisreal

    You know that every effect has its causes. Everything happens, everything that happens is all for the best. If it were not for this, it is not a fact that it would be better.

  2. Tygozil

    Everyone waited well, and we will fall on the tail

  3. Akinorn

    This is just a great thought.

  4. Kajind

    I absolutely agree with you. I think this is a very great idea. I completely agree with you.

  5. Sproule

    You have hit the mark. In it something is also idea good, agree with you.

  6. Renfrid

    I apologize for interfering, but I need a little more information.

Write a message