What they are (definition)
Chromosomes are responsible for carrying all the information that cells need for their growth, development and reproduction. Located in the cell nucleus, they are made up of DNA, which in specific patterns are called genes.
Main chromosome characteristics and function
The characteristics of each individual, such as eye color, hair, height, among many others, are hereditary, since they are part of their genetic code (DNA).
Chromosomes are usually found in pairs, but are not always visible in this way, especially when they are deconcentrated and detached from chromatin. However, they again condense and coil at the moment of cellular reproduction, at this stage they can be seen in pairs.
In our genetic code there are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs); However, it is important to know that the number of chromosomes is not related to the level of intelligence or complexity of each creature, since the human being is not the one with the largest number of chromosomes.
There are still many organisms of the same species with different numbers of chromosomes, one example is how often plants of the same species are found with this characteristic.
Within the cell nucleus we also find another nucleic acid that contributes to protein formation and cell division. Both RNA and DNA are found within the cell nucleus.
Most human cells are in pairs, so they are called diploids (46 chromosomes). There are also haploid cells (23 chromosomes), which have only half the number of chromosomes and are usually found in male and female germ cells. It is through haploid cells that meiosis will occur.