Lack of skin in a certain area of the body - hypo[what]?

Lack of skin in a certain area of the body - hypo[what]?

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Lack of skin in a certain area of the body. How shell I name this?

  • Hypocutaneousis?
  • Hypo[somethingElse]?

What is the correct term?

First, this is not an area where I have any education or experience. However, out of curiosity I consulted google and found two genetic castle diseases that should be relevant to your question:

  • Epitheliogenesis imperfecta (
  • Ectodermal dysplasia

Both diseases are very serious, and Epitheliogenesis imperfecta is fatal (due to infections).

I chose not to include any pictures of the diseases in this answer since they often look quite horrible, and some people might find them unsettling. If you click the links there are pictures of the conditions though.

A "similar" condition in humans might be Epidermolysis bullosa, which is caused by decreased anchoring between dermis and epidermis, which cause a very fragile skin:

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of mainly inherited connective tissue diseases that cause blisters in the skin and mucosal membranes, with an incidence of 20 per million newborns in the United States.[1] It is a result of a defect in anchoring between the epidermis and dermis, resulting in friction and skin fragility. Its severity ranges from mild to lethal.


You can say skin atrophy or just thinning where dermal thickness is reduced.

Understanding Pruritus

Daniel More, MD, is a board-certified allergist and clinical immunologist. He is an assistant clinical professor at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine and currently practices at Central Coast Allergy and Asthma in Salinas, California.

Casey Gallagher, MD, is board-certified in dermatology. He is a clinical professor at the University of Colorado in Denver, and co-founder and practicing dermatologist at the Boulder Valley Center for Dermatology in Colorado. His research has been published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Pruritus refers to an unpleasant sensation that causes the need to scratch, commonly called itching by most people. Pruritus may be localized to a certain area of the body or can be all over or generalized.

When a rash goes along with the pruritus, it's usually easy to determine the cause and treat it. The most difficult cases of pruritus are those without an associated rash.

Hypopigmentation Scars

Scars can take many different forms. They happen when the skin is damaged to a certain degree due to a wound, disease or surgery. The scarring is part of the skins normal healing process.

The scar tissue created is made of exactly the same material as what it is replacing (i.e. collagen). The difference however is that the way it is put together is inferior to the original construction. It tends to align in one direction creating stiffer bundled lines of collagen for example. This can make scars raised, and very visible. It may not look as we would like it to, but it does serve the purpose of repairing the structural damage.

Just as scarring can take very different shapes (some being raised whilst others are pitted), they can also be different colors. Some scars can cause a red or darker skin color whilst others can be pure white. These white scars are the hypopigmented ones. That is, the repaired skin lacks normal pigment leaving them white. Research indicates [1] the reason for this is related to the depth and width of the wound, which at certain levels can prevent new melanocytes (the pigment creating cells) from being able to move into the scar material.

BIO 140 - Human Biology I - Textbook

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Chapter 14

Layers of the Skin

  • Identify the components of the integumentary system
  • Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer
  • Identify and describe the hypodermis and deep fascia
  • Describe the role of keratinocytes and their life cycle
  • Describe the role of melanocytes in skin pigmentation

Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. The skin and its accessory structures make up the integumentary system , which provides the body with overall protection. The skin is made of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying structures by connective tissue (Figure 1). The deeper layer of skin is well vascularized (has numerous blood vessels). It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain.

Figure 1: The skin is composed of two main layers: the epidermis, made of closely packed epithelial cells, and the dermis, made of dense, irregular connective tissue that houses blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures. Beneath the dermis lies the hypodermis, which is composed mainly of loose connective and fatty tissues.

Click on the link below to view an animation about the layers of the skin. The skin consists of two main layers and a closely associated layer. What are the basic functions of each of these layers?

The Epidermis

The epidermis is composed of keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. It is made of four or five layers of epithelial cells, depending on its location in the body. It does not have any blood vessels within it (i.e., it is avascular). Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as &ldquothin skin.&rdquo From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. Most of the skin can be classified as thin skin. &ldquoThick skin&rdquo is found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. It has a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, located between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum (Figure 2).

Figure 2: These slides show cross-sections of the epidermis and dermis of (a) thin and (b) thick skin. Note the significant difference in the thickness of the epithelial layer of the thick skin. From top, LM × 40, LM × 40. (Micrographs provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

The cells in all of the layers except the stratum basale are called keratinocytes. A keratinocyte is a cell that manufactures and stores the protein keratin. Keratin is an intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, and skin their hardness and water-resistant properties. The keratinocytes in the stratum corneum are dead and regularly slough away, being replaced by cells from the deeper layers (Figure 3).

Figure 3: The epidermis is epithelium composed of multiple layers of cells. The basal layer consists of cuboidal cells, whereas the outer layers are squamous, keratinized cells, so the whole epithelium is often described as being keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. LM × 40. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Click on the link below to view the University of Michigan WebScope to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. (Note: requires that you have Flash Player installed on your computer). If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells?

Stratum Basale

The stratum basale (also called the stratum germinativum) is the deepest epidermal layer and attaches the epidermis to the basal lamina, below which lie the layers of the dermis. The cells in the stratum basale bond to the dermis via intertwining collagen fibers, referred to as the basement membrane. A finger-like projection, or fold, known as the dermal papilla (plural = dermal papillae) is found in the superficial portion of the dermis. Dermal papillae increase the strength of the connection between the epidermis and dermis the greater the folding, the stronger the connections made (Figure 4).

Figure 4: The epidermis of thick skin has five layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.

The stratum basale is a single layer of cells primarily made of basal cells. A basal cell is a cuboidal-shaped stem cell that is a precursor of the keratinocytes of the epidermis. All of the keratinocytes are produced from this single layer of cells, which are constantly going through mitosis to produce new cells. As new cells are formed, the existing cells are pushed superficially away from the stratum basale. Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. The first is a Merkel cell , which functions as a receptor and is responsible for stimulating sensory nerves that the brain perceives as touch. These cells are especially abundant on the surfaces of the hands and feet. The second is a melanocyte , a cell that produces the pigment melanin. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage.

In a growing fetus, fingerprints form where the cells of the stratum basale meet the papillae of the underlying dermal layer (papillary layer), resulting in the formation of the ridges on your fingers that you recognize as fingerprints. Fingerprints are unique to each individual and are used for forensic analyses because the patterns do not change with the growth and aging processes.

Stratum Spinosum

As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome . The desmosomes interlock with each other and strengthen the bond between the cells. It is interesting to note that the &ldquospiny&rdquo nature of this layer is an artifact of the staining process. Unstained epidermis samples do not exhibit this characteristic appearance. The stratum spinosum is composed of eight to 10 layers of keratinocytes, formed as a result of cell division in the stratum basale (Figure 5). Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell , which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer.

Figure 5: The cells in the different layers of the epidermis originate from basal cells located in the stratum basale, yet the cells of each layer are distinctively different. EM × 2700. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012)

Click on the link below to view the University of Michigan WebScope to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. (Note: requires that you have Flash Player installed on your computer). If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells?

The keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum begin the synthesis of keratin and release a water-repelling glycolipid that helps prevent water loss from the body, making the skin relatively waterproof. As new keratinocytes are produced atop the stratum basale, the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum are pushed into the stratum granulosum.

Stratum Granulosum

The stratum granulosum has a grainy appearance due to further changes to the keratinocytes as they are pushed from the stratum spinosum. The cells (three to five layers deep) become flatter, their cell membranes thicken, and they generate large amounts of the proteins keratin, which is fibrous, and keratohyalin , which accumulates as lamellar granules within the cells (see Figure 4). These two proteins make up the bulk of the keratinocyte mass in the stratum granulosum and give the layer its grainy appearance. The nuclei and other cell organelles disintegrate as the cells die, leaving behind the keratin, keratohyalin, and cell membranes that will form the stratum lucidum, the stratum corneum, and the accessory structures of hair and nails.

Stratum Lucidum

The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum. This thin layer of cells is found only in the thick skin of the palms, soles, and digits. The keratinocytes that compose the stratum lucidum are dead and flattened (see Figure 4). These cells are densely packed with eleiden , a clear protein rich in lipids, derived from keratohyalin, which gives these cells their transparent (i.e., lucid) appearance and provides a barrier to water.

Stratum Corneum

The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see Figure 4). The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. There are usually 15 to 30 layers of cells in the stratum corneum. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. Cells in this layer are shed periodically and are replaced by cells pushed up from the stratum granulosum (or stratum lucidum in the case of the palms and soles of feet). The entire layer is replaced during a period of about 4 weeks. Cosmetic procedures, such as microdermabrasion, help remove some of the dry, upper layer and aim to keep the skin looking &ldquofresh&rdquo and healthy.

Everyday Connection

Skin Color

The skin is the largest and most visible organ of the body. Variance in skin color is not only determined by the color of melanin which ranges from very light brown, red, to very dark brown, but also the position in which cells receiving melanin pigments from the melanosomes are situated in the skin strata. Cells situated closer to the outer surface of the skin will reveal more melanin pigmentation compared to cells located further away from the outer surface of the skin. Additionally, the amount of carotene and hemoglobin can contribute to skin color.

The figures above show melanin in the upper layers of the skin are more visible compared to those housed in the cells in the lower layers of the skin stratum. Thus a fair colored person may either have a darker melanin pigment housed in the lower cell layers of the skin stratum or alternatively, may have a lighter melanin pigment housed in the top layered cells of the skin stratum.

Watch the video in the link below to learn more about skin color.


The dermis might be considered the &ldquocore&rdquo of the integumentary system (derma- = &ldquoskin&rdquo), as distinct from the epidermis (epi- = &ldquoupon&rdquo or &ldquoover&rdquo) and hypodermis (hypo- = &ldquobelow&rdquo). It contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and other structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands. The dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts (Figure 6).

Figure 6: This stained slide shows the two components of the dermis&mdashthe papillary layer and the reticular layer. Both are made of connective tissue with fibers of collagen extending from one to the other, making the border between the two somewhat indistinct. The dermal papillae extending into the epidermis belong to the papillary layer, whereas the dense collagen fiber bundles below belong to the reticular layer. LM × 10. (credit: modification of work by &ldquokilbad&rdquo/Wikimedia Commons)

Papillary Layer

The papillary layer is made of loose, areolar connective tissue, which means the collagen and elastin fibers of this layer form a loose mesh. This superficial layer of the dermis projects into the stratum basale of the epidermis to form finger-like dermal papillae (see Figure 6). Within the papillary layer are fibroblasts, a small number of fat cells (adipocytes), and an abundance of small blood vessels. In addition, the papillary layer contains phagocytes, defensive cells that help fight bacteria or other infections that have breached the skin. This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles.

Reticular Layer

Underlying the papillary layer is the much thicker reticular layer , composed of dense, irregular connective tissue. This layer is well vascularized and has a rich sensory and sympathetic nerve supply. The reticular layer appears reticulated (net-like) due to a tight meshwork of fibers. Elastin fibers provide some elasticity to the skin, enabling movement. Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. In addition, collagen binds water to keep the skin hydrated. Collagen injections and Retin-A creams help restore skin turgor by either introducing collagen externally or stimulating blood flow and repair of the dermis, respectively.


The hypodermis (also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia) is a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles. It is not strictly a part of the skin, although the border between the hypodermis and dermis can be difficult to distinguish. The hypodermis consists of well-vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument.

Everyday Connection

Lipid Storage

The hypodermis is home to most of the fat that concerns people when they are trying to keep their weight under control. Adipose tissue present in the hypodermis consists of fat-storing cells called adipocytes. This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma.

Where the fat is deposited and accumulates within the hypodermis depends on hormones (testosterone, estrogen, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and others), as well as genetic factors. Fat distribution changes as our bodies mature and age. Men tend to accumulate fat in different areas (neck, arms, lower back, and abdomen) than do women (breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks). The body mass index (BMI) is often used as a measure of fat, although this measure is, in fact, derived from a mathematical formula that compares body weight (mass) to height. Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit.

In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. In much of the developed world, insufficient exercise coupled with the ready availability and consumption of high-calorie foods have resulted in unwanted accumulations of adipose tissue in many people. Although periodic accumulation of excess fat may have provided an evolutionary advantage to our ancestors, who experienced unpredictable bouts of famine, it is now becoming chronic and considered a major health threat. Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. Changes in lifestyle, specifically in diet and exercise, are the best ways to control body fat accumulation, especially when it reaches levels that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes.


The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Recall that melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout the stratum basale of the epidermis. The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular vesicle called a melanosome (Figure 7).

Figure 7: The relative coloration of the skin depends of the amount of melanin produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale and taken up by keratinocytes.

Melanin occurs in two primary forms. Eumelanin exists as black and brown, whereas pheomelanin provides a red color. Dark-skinned individuals produce more melanin than those with pale skin. Exposure to the UV rays of the sun or a tanning salon causes melanin to be manufactured and built up in keratinocytes, as sun exposure stimulates keratinocytes to secrete chemicals that stimulate melanocytes. The accumulation of melanin in keratinocytes results in the darkening of the skin, or a tan. This increased melanin accumulation protects the DNA of epidermal cells from UV ray damage and the breakdown of folic acid, a nutrient necessary for our health and well-being. In contrast, too much melanin can interfere with the production of vitamin D, an important nutrient involved in calcium absorption. Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production.

It requires about 10 days after initial sun exposure for melanin synthesis to peak, which is why pale-skinned individuals tend to suffer sunburns of the epidermis initially. Dark-skinned individuals can also get sunburns, but are more protected than are pale-skinned individuals. Melanosomes are temporary structures that are eventually destroyed by fusion with lysosomes this fact, along with melanin-filled keratinocytes in the stratum corneum sloughing off, makes tanning impermanent.

Too much sun exposure can eventually lead to wrinkling due to the destruction of the cellular structure of the skin, and in severe cases, can cause sufficient DNA damage to result in skin cancer. When there is an irregular accumulation of melanocytes in the skin, freckles appear. Moles are larger masses of melanocytes, and although most are benign, they should be monitored for changes that might indicate the presence of cancer ( Figure 8).

Figure 8: Moles range from benign accumulations of melanocytes to melanomas. These structures populate the landscape of our skin. (credit: the National Cancer Institute)

Disorders of the&hellip

Integumentary System

The first thing a clinician sees is the skin, and so the examination of the skin should be part of any thorough physical examination. Most skin disorders are relatively benign, but a few, including melanomas, can be fatal if untreated. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Although neither is fatal, it would be hard to claim that they are benign, at least to the individuals so afflicted.

Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects (completely or partially) the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes. The defect is primarily due to the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin. Individuals with albinism tend to appear white or very pale due to the lack of melanin in their skin and hair. Recall that melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Individuals with albinism tend to need more protection from UV radiation, as they are more prone to sunburns and skin cancer. They also tend to be more sensitive to light and have vision problems due to the lack of pigmentation on the retinal wall. Treatment of this disorder usually involves addressing the symptoms, such as limiting UV light exposure to the skin and eyes. In vitiligo , the melanocytes in certain areas lose their ability to produce melanin, possibly due to an autoimmune reaction. This leads to a loss of color in patches (Figure 9). Neither albinism nor vitiligo directly affects the lifespan of an individual.

Figure 9: Individuals with vitiligo experience depigmentation that results in lighter colored patches of skin. The condition is especially noticeable on darker skin. (credit: Klaus D. Peter)

Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems. Liver disease or liver cancer can cause the accumulation of bile and the yellow pigment bilirubin, leading to the skin appearing yellow or jaundiced (jaune is the French word for &ldquoyellow&rdquo). Tumors of the pituitary gland can result in the secretion of large amounts of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which results in a darkening of the skin. Similarly, Addison&rsquos disease can stimulate the release of excess amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which can give the skin a deep bronze color. A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white). With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for &ldquoblue&rdquo). This happens when the oxygen supply is restricted, as when someone is experiencing difficulty in breathing because of asthma or a heart attack. However, in these cases the effect on skin color has nothing do with the skin&rsquos pigmentation.

The ABC video linked to below follows the story of a pair of fraternal African-American twins, one of whom is albino. Click on the link below to watch a video about the challenges these children and their family face. Which ethnicities do you think are exempt from the possibility of albinism?

Chapter Review

The skin is composed of two major layers: a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis. The epidermis consists of several layers beginning with the innermost (deepest) stratum basale (germinatum), followed by the stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum (when present), and ending with the outermost layer, the stratum corneum. The topmost layer, the stratum corneum, consists of dead cells that shed periodically and is progressively replaced by cells formed from the basal layer. The stratum basale also contains melanocytes, cells that produce melanin, the pigment primarily responsible for giving skin its color. Melanin is transferred to keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum to protect cells from UV rays.

The dermis connects the epidermis to the hypodermis, and provides strength and elasticity due to the presence of collagen and elastin fibers. It has only two layers: the papillary layer with papillae that extend into the epidermis and the lower, reticular layer composed of loose connective tissue. The hypodermis, deep to the dermis of skin, is the connective tissue that connects the dermis to underlying structures it also harbors adipose tissue for fat storage and protection.

Conditions Which Affect the Hypodermis

There are several medical disorders and medical procedures which are related to this unique layer of the skin:

Hypothermia and Overheating: The thinning of the hypodermis with age is one of the reasons that older people are more prone to hypothermia. If you are ordinarily hot, this news is not necessarily so good. The thinning of the hypodermis also may mean that you sweat less, and a lack of sweating is important in conditions such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke.  

Injections: While many medications are given intravenously, some are injected into the hypodermis (subcutaneous layer). Examples of medications which may be given by subcutaneous (subQ) injection include epinephrine for allergic reactions, some vaccinations, insulin, some fertility drugs, some chemotherapy medications, growth hormone, and anti-arthritis drugs such as Enbrel. Medications given by subcutaneous injections are absorbed more slowly than drugs given by intravenous injection, making subQ injections an ideal route for many drugs.  

Obesity: Excess body fat is located in the hypodermis, a layer that has received a lot of attention in recent years due to the growing rate of obesity, and the thought that not all body fat is equal, at least with respect to the role it may play in metabolic syndrome and heart disease.  

Over 100 substances, swallowed or applied to the skin, are known to cause sun-induced reactions on the skin. A limited number cause most reactions (see Table: Some Substances That Sensitize the Skin to Sunlight). There are two types of chemical photosensitivity: phototoxicity and photoallergy.

In phototoxicity, people have pain and develop redness, inflammation, and sometimes brown or blue-gray discoloration in areas of skin that have been exposed to sunlight for a brief period. These symptoms resemble those of sunburn, but the reaction differs from sunburn in that it occurs only after the person has swallowed certain drugs (such as tetracyclines or diuretics) or chemical compounds or has applied them to the skin (such as perfume and coal tar). Some plants (including limes, celery, and parsley) contain compounds called furocoumarins that make some people's skin more sensitive to the effects of UV light. This reaction is called phytophotodermatitis. All phototoxic reactions appear only on areas of skin that have been exposed to the sun. They usually develop within hours after sun exposure.

In photoallergy, an allergic reaction causes redness, scaling, itching, and sometimes blisters and spots that resemble hives. This type of reaction can be caused by aftershave lotions, sunscreens, and sulfonamides. Substances that cause photoallergy are capable of doing so only after the person has been exposed to both the substance and sunlight (because sunlight is what makes the substance capable of triggering photoallergy). Photoallergic reactions can also affect areas of skin that have not been exposed to the sun. They usually develop 24 to 72 hours after sun exposure.

Autoimmune Disease Starts with Allergies

Autoimmune disease is a last stage adaptation to an over active immune response. When the immune system is over stimulated in the initial stages it manifests with allergies. If the root source of these allergies are not found and corrected (this is NOT with allergy shots or medications), then the allergies will eventually become chronic immune over stimulation and can transform into autoimmune disease.

In putting autoimmune disease and allergies in perspective of normal immune function, it is necessary to understand that allergies are an initial phase of immune over stimulation that are triggered from outside of the body whereas autoimmune reactions are a late phase of chronic immune over stimulation that occurs within the body causing damage to tissues, glands and organs. Both these reactions are from a hyper or exaggerated immune response. Cancer and recurrent infections on the other hand are a hypo or decreased immune system response from an insult either outside of the body or from inside the body. In the same pattern, if you do not heal the cause of the bacteria, virus, parasite, fungus or candida then the immune system drain can trigger a failure to contain the normal spontaneous cancer cell growth and turn into a full blown cancer colony called a malignant tumor.

Hyper immune Autoimmune Allergies/sensitivities
Hypo immune Cancer Bacteria, viruses, parasites, mold/fungus, candida
Inside the body Outside of the body

Autoimmune diseases and where they originate from

  • Multiple Sclerosis-nervous system
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis-joints
  • Crohn’s Colitis-bowel
  • Diabetes-pancreas
  • Hasimoto’s/Graves-thyroid
  • Addison’s-adrenal
  • Hepatitis-liver
  • Nephritis-kidney
  • Lupus- systemic, whole body
  • Scleroderma-skin
  • Vitiligo-skin
  • Alopecia-skin
  • Meniere’s-ear

Symptoms of Allergies/Sensitivities

  1. Neck pain, back pain, stiffness, swelling or tightness of joints, arthritis-like pain, arm and leg aches and pains, headaches of all types including migraines
  2. Indigestion, heart burn, gas, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, stomach ache, malabsorption, colic pain
  3. Sore throats, stuffy nose, nasal congestion, sinusitis, post-nasal drip, cough, frequent colds or flu, asthma, bronchitis, earache, ringing in the ears, dark circles under the eyes
  4. Acne, eczema, hives, rashes, and all types of skin disorders
  5. Fatigue, hard to get up in the morning—even after enough sleep, fatigue 1-2 hours after eating, bladder problems, bed wetting, having to urinate frequently—even without fluid intake, feeling worse with weather changes, temperature changes and season changes

What causes Immune system dysfunction?

  • Mental/emotional stress
  • Leaky Gut Syndrome
  • Malnutrition– either due to lack of digestion or consuming too many non- nutrient calories (overweight but starving for correct vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, phytochemicals)
  • Toxicity
    • Exotoxins are from the environment-house dust contains 33 chemical that cause breast cancer
    • Endotoxins from maldigestion
    • Lack of oxygen– either due to improper lung function, anemia or because of acidic food intake along with high unhealthy fat consumption.
    • Lack of 4 hours of premidnight dark sleep
    • Lack of exercise: including cellular, lymphatic and cardiovascular
    • Dehydration- most Americans are dehydrated and are not even aware of it.

    Leaky Gut Syndrome

    Leaky gut is exactly what it sounds like. The intestinal tract is like a fine screen or mesh, which only lets nutrients of a certain size through. The nutrients then pass into the hepatic portal blood vessels, which can bring nutrients to the liver, your chemical detoxification plant.

    In a leaky gut condition, the intestinal tract becomes inflamed and the selective permeability (letting only digested food particle through) breaks down. This allows the passage of not only normal digested nutrient building blocks (amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars from carbohydrates), but also the passage of larger food particles, like larger chain proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and toxins that were never meant to pass through. This can be likened to a window screen. If the screen is functioning properly with no holes in it, air will pass through, but the flies, mosquitoes and other bugs will not. In leaky gut, the intestinal barrier becomes inflamed. Instead of only letting the digested broken down food particles through, the larger food particles and toxins enter, causing the immune system to become weakened and over stimulated. This is like the screen that now has tears, making larger holes that allow all types of insects to get through.

    This presents a few problems.

    Larger chain proteins can trigger not only intestinal irritation and inflammation, but also all kinds of allergies, immune and autoimmune problems, and inflammatory joint conditions like rheumatoid arthritis.

    Leaky gut can also result in toxicity, since toxins leak through the “screen” of your intestinal wall (because of the larger holes produced by the inflammation). These toxins ultimately end up in the liver, your chemical detox plant. Unfortunately, your liver is then overburdened, and the toxins end up circulating throughout the body, causing havoc wherever they go. If the toxins deposit in the brain, you might have foggy thoughts, possible memory loss and/or confusion, and even the start of neurological disease like multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. If the toxins deposit in the joints, you will have arthritic-type pains. If the toxins deposit in organs that produce white blood cells (WBCs), your immune system will be weakened, making you more susceptible to illness, including cancer.


    Local side effects

    These tend to occur with prolonged treatment and depend on potency of TS, its vehicle and site of application. The most common include atrophy, striae, rosacea, perioral dermatitis, acne and purpura. Hypertrichosis, pigment alteration, delayed wound healing and exacerbation of skin infections are less frequent.[5] Table 1 lists the local side effects of TS with associated risk factors and mechanism.

    Table 1

    In the infection column, put comma between Granuloma gluteale infantum and genital ulceration

    Systemic adverse effects

    Systemic adverse effects from TS have also been described and they are more likely to develop when highly potent TS are used for prolonged periods on thin skin (e.g. face) or on raw/inflamed surfaces.[4,5]

    bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor CHFS, cochin Hand Function Scale CT, cell therapy DDEB, dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa DEB, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa DNCB 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene EGF, epidermal growth factor GT, gene therapy hA-MSCs, human amnion mesenchymal stem cells hAT-MSCs, human adipose mesenchymal stem cells hBM-MSCs, human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells hDP-MSCs, human dermal papilla mesenchymal stem cells hDT-MSCs, human deciduous teeth mesenchymal stem cells hG-MSCs, human gingival mucosa mesenchymal stem cells hJM-MSCs, human jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells hMen-MSCs, human menstrual fluid mesenchymal stem cells hMSCs, human mesenchymal stem cells hP-MSCs, human placenta mesenchymal stem cells hPT-MSCs, human palatine tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells hUCB-MSCs, human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells hWJ-MSCs, human wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells IMQ, imiquimod KLCs, keratinocyte-like cells MCs, mast cells MRSC, modified rodnan skin score PASI, psoriasis area and severity index PDLLA, poly-D, L-lactic acid PRP, platelet-rich plasma RDEB, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa SCORAD, severity scoring for atopic dermatitis SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate SHAQ, scleroderma health assessment questionnaire SM, sulfur mustard SOD3, superoxide dismutase SSc, systemic sclerosis TBSA, total body surface area TE, tissue engineering TESSs, tissue-engineered skin substitutes TGF- β, transforming growth factor beta VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor VSS, vancouver scar scale.

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    Keywords : advanced therapy, cell therapy, dermatology, mesenchymal stem cells, skin diseases, skin injuries, stem cells, tissue engineering

    Citation: Sierra-Sánchez Á, Montero-Vilchez T, Quiñones-Vico MI, Sanchez-Diaz M and Arias-Santiago S (2021) Current Advanced Therapies Based on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Skin Diseases. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:643125. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.643125

    Received: 17 December 2020 Accepted: 18 February 2021
    Published: 09 March 2021.

    Vivian Capilla-González, Andalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Spain

    Yanling Liao, New York Medical College, United States
    Johannes Boltze, University of Warwick, United Kingdom

    Copyright © 2021 Sierra-Sánchez, Montero-Vilchez, Quiñones-Vico, Sanchez-Diaz and Arias-Santiago. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


    2. a condition of acute peripheral circulatory failure due to derangement of circulatory control or loss of circulating fluid. It is marked by hypotension and coldness of the skin, and often by tachycardia and anxiety. Untreated shock can be fatal. Called also circulatory collapse.

    Mechanisms of Circulatory Shock . The essentials of shock are easier to understand if the circulatory system is thought of as a four-part mechanical device made up of a pump (the heart), a complex system of flexible tubes (the blood vessels), a circulating fluid (the blood), and a fine regulating system or &ldquocomputer&rdquo (the nervous system) designed to control fluid flow and pressure. The diameter of the blood vessels is controlled by impulses from the nervous system which cause the muscular walls to contract. The nervous system also affects the rapidity and strength of the heartbeat, and thereby the blood pressure as well.

    Shock, which is associated with a dangerously low blood pressure, can be produced by factors that attack the strength of the heart as a pump, decrease the volume of the blood in the system, or permit the blood vessels to increase in diameter.